Kozlovsky V. State and Sociology in Russia
SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION
Interview with Professor Valentin Semionov
Professor Valentin Semionov answers questions of JSSA editor V. Kozlovsky concerning his life and academic career.
Semionov V. Dehumanization Trend in Modernistic and Popular Art in the XX th and at
the Beginning of the XX Ist Centuries: A Sociopsychological Analysis
The article deals with tendencies and problems of dehumanization and depersonalization in modernistic and mass-cultural art in the XXth and at the beginning of the XXIst centuries. The author provides the sociopsychological (qualitative and quantitative) analysis of painting and rock and pop music in historical perspective. The data are generalized and interpreted according to the author’s value-moral conception of cathartic-anticathartic art.
HISTORY OF RUSSIAN SOCIAL THOUGHT
Prasolov M. "Numeral is Assuming a Special Power" (Social Utopia of the Moscow Philosophical-Mathematical School)
The article analyzes the "project" of mathematization of sociology and socialutopian ideas that the Moscow philosophical-mathematical school (N.V. Bugaev, P.A. Nekrasov, V.G. Alekseev, L.K. Lakhtin, N.N. Luzin, D.F. Egorov end others) developed in late 19th – 20th centuries. These Russian mathematicians were striving to find to the classic sociological oppositions "individual – society" and "freedom – necessity", relying on other mathematical and anthropological bases than proponents of the positivist and materialist sociology did. Their mathematical basis was arithmology and theory of probability, the anthropological one – personalistic monadology. By means of them, this school tried to prove the necessity of acknowledging freedom in mass social processes. The members of this school originated a scientist social utopia into which some elements of Slavophilism and political monarchism were creatively incorporated. Ultimately, however, the social "project" of Russian mathematicians came to lose freedom as a factor in social practice and substituted the free individual’s autonomy for an ideal of sacralized scientist state.
Bugaev N. Mathematics and Scientific and Philosophical World View
These are excerpts from N. Bugaev’s work "Mathematics and Scientific and Philosophical World View" originally published in Kiev in 1898.
Nekrasov P. Faith, Knowledge, Experience
These are fragments from P. Nekrasov’s book "Faith, Knowledge, Experience" first published in St. Petersburg in 1912.
Nekrasov P. Moscow Philosophical-Mathematical School and its Founders
A republication of fragments from P. Nekrasov’s book "Moscow Philosophical- Mathematical School and its Founders" (Moscow, 1904).
CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL THEORY
Prozorova Y. R. Collins’s Interaction Ritual Theory: from Microrituals to Macrostructure
The article reflects the key points of Collins’s interaction ritual theory and the main stages of its formation in the context of the sociological paradigms polarization and the development of a new integral approach. It contains an original approach to solve key science issues – the ontological problem of coexistence of micro-macro phenomena as well as of the genesis of macrostructures and epistemological problems of its analysis. The new interpretation of interaction ritual is considered as a synthesis of Durkheim’s and Goffman’s ritual conceptions. The article presents a modus operandi of the interaction ritual at the microlevel and the logics of relationship between microrituals and macrophenomena.
MULTICULTURALISM: A CRITICAL VIEW
Khomyakov M. Brian Barry: Liberal Universalism versus Multiculturalism and Nationalism
Sadokhin A. Intercultural Competence: its Definition, Structure and Formation
The article deals with the definition of the notion of "competence" distinguishing it from the notion of "competency". As a result three types of competence are differentiated one of them being intercultural competence which is brought into focus of this paper. The author considers intercultural competence as an integration of knowledge, abilities and skills allowing an efficient communication with the members of other cultures. Not only he provides a detailed characteristic of this type of competence but he also shows its socio-cultural significance in a modern cultural dialogue.
SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH
Rusinova N., Panova L., Safronov V. Life Expectancy in the RF Regions: Significance of Economical Factors and Social Environment
The present article reveals the results of the research, which was made in attempt to study the influence both of the macroeconomic factors and social environment characteristics on the population of RF regions. Revising the state statistics data and data materials presented by CEMI RAS an ecological analysis considering connections between these factors and the rank of life expectancy is being performed. The resuming points are the following.The primary societal feature possessing the potential in explanation of interregional differences of life expectancy rates is the quality of the social space. It is considered that the more conflicted and complicated the interpersonal relations are (crime level, family violence and social disorders, etc.) the less chance a human born today has to live a long and happy life. Studies have shown that in the economically developed RF regions which turned out to be mostly involved in the transformation processes of the post- soviet period, higher social risks, expanding the social discomfort and erosion of social norms are being formed.
Khokhlova A. Migrant as a Naïve Ethnographer: Mastering New Cultural Urban Space
This paper considers the limited nature of the repertory of research positions in sociological urban studies. In spite of the diversity of actors engaged in urban social space it is either sociologists in themselves or "average native city-dwellers" that are traditionally recognized as legitimate "experts" in its description. The author adverts to one of the alternative urban narratives: to the individual stories of new cultural space mastering reconstructed in in-depth interviews with inner migrants. Resting upon the materials of her field study devoted to migrants from different parts of Russia in St. Petersburg she discovers a number of parallels between the positions of a professional ethnographer investigating the urban space and a newcomer that has to master this space: the asperities of resocialization; the techniques of competence presentation; the "othering" of one’s own culture, etc. Correspondingly, this migration narrative is understood as a kind of "naïve ethnography" of the city that felicitously combines the lack of routinized knowledge of the city and the diversity and intensity of encounters with urban everyday life.
Zorina E. Social Support of Family in Russia and Germany: Some Trends and Opportunities
The article considers one of the aspects of modern family transformation – a decrease of birth rate and its reasons. This tendency is observed from the mid-60s and is characteristic both for Russia and Germany. The author scrutinizes state policies aiming to increase the birth rate and strengthen the family in the fields of law, employment, education, and housing.
Tyusova O. Sampling Methods in Social-Epidemiological Research
The scientific report deals with methods of sampling for social-epidemiological research of HIV infection. They include snow ball sampling, facility based sentinel surveillance, targeted sampling, time-location sampling, and respondent-driven sampling. Particular attention is paid to respondent-driven sampling (RDS). This strategy has proved to be effective in recruiting hard-to-reach populations in the USA. It is being used now for the first time in St. Petersburg (Russia) to recruit drug users and homosexuals for the study of HIV transmission. The theory of Six Degrees of Separation is proposed as the social foundation of RDS.
Pokrovskaya N. Social Norms as an Object of Sociological Analysis
The concept of social norm allows sociologists to characterise the social influence on the society members’ behaviour. Depending of the features of these influence, social norm is treated as an imperative or statistically dominant behaviour pattern, as a pressing of society onto individual or as his support. The first interpretation relates two key regulative tools – social norms and values, appealing to analyse the complex correlation of these terms and respective approaches. Although every human act contains a value judgement, the independent research of social norms is useful to know the real human behaviour features. Therefore it is important to make instrumental the notion of social norm for the purpose of research of social behaviour within the framework of practical management tasks and theoretical scientific comprehension and prediction.
NEWS / INFORMATION
Round Table "Problems of Christian Sociology"
The Round Table "Problems of Christian Sociology" was held at Moscow State University, 23 January, 2007.
NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Shaiduk O. Rethinking Totalitarian Past: New Theoretical Approach to Soviet Reality
Yurchak A. Everything Was Forever, Until It Was No More: The Last Soviet Generation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006. — 352 pp.