SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION
Interview with Professor Nikolay Lapin
Professor Nikolay Lapin answers questions of the JSSA editor Vladimir Kozlovsky concerning his life and scientific career.
Lapin N. The Anthroposocietal Approach
The author presents his approach, which allows him to view society as a whole: its components (personality, culture, socium), types of their correlations, functions, processes, stages of evolution. The person as a real actor is not lost in the mass of contemporary socium, but has a possibility to rise to the same level as it. This is the essence of the anthroposocietal approach. What is it based on? The author offers an understanding of society as a nonequilibrium anthroposocietal system, which is under the threat of the catastrophic risks, but can change in response to them and provide stabilization and order from crisis and chaos. This understanding based on closely connected principles, including the principle of incomplete reciprocal accordance between the personality and the socium, is the central. The actual problems of the individual´s massification in various societies and the individualisation of the societies of the other modernity are examined. The European Union is characterized as the anthroposocietal system of a new type – among the states and among the citizens of these states. The accent is made on the necessity to enhance the modern qualities of the Russian society.
Stolbov V., Frikowski M. Social Exclusion and Ways to Overcome it: a Psycho-Sociological Aspect
The fate of new theoretical concepts in science is always uncertain: they could be accepted or rejected. The concept of "social exclusion" is rather new in sociology and provokes discussion. Authors argue that it has enough semantic potential and could be very useful when one looks at important social realities.
Anokhin A. Social Adaptation in Terms of Border Phenomenon
This article analyses social adaptation by means of elucidating the border phenomenon as a social and a spatiotemporal category. The suggested approach evaluates the necessity of social space structuring both in physical and ideal sense through creative action strengthening, interpretation of symbols, and social distance definition.
Kim I. Woman´s Participation in Terrorist Attacks: a Religious Experience or Female Discrimination?
This paper treats the participation of women in Islamic terrorist activities in Russia. Gender Studies methodology provides explanation of gender asymmetry in Islam and helps to elicit reasons for female recruitment in terrorist activities. The author argues that gender inequality in Islam is one of the main reasons for women to take part in terrorist attacks.
Fedotova N. Multiculturalism and Politics of Development
The paper is focused on the problems of identity in the context of multiculturalism and globalization. It is argued that exactly these two processes, combined with anomie have brought into existence both the problem of identity and interest in its discussion. Split of identity, its fragmentation in the context of social change brings about its crisis together with different interpretations on the ways of overcoming it. Attention is paid to the fact that identity has started to be studied extensively relatively recently, and that experience of analyzing identity in sociology cannot be called enormous. The paper discusses state policy in the area of culture and identity, arguing that politics of development of Russian society should be the basis of new identity.
Davydov V. Cultural Authenticity and Indigenous Peoples: Institutional Processes and Identity Politics
This article represents the review of western sociological and anthropological theories of "cultural authenticity" and "invention of tradition". The term "authenticity" came into the lexicon of social sciences in the early 1970s. The idea of the "search of the origins" and the paradigm of "authenticity" were at the base of folkloristic and ethnography as scientific disciplines. The notion of cultural authenticity often appears in scientific debates concerning to indigenous peoples. The terms "tradition" and "authenticity" were often applied for the description of aboriginal cultures within colonial discourse and they were the key elements in construction of the "other" discourse. These notions were also used as tools of power and domination. Authenticity can be characterised as an ambiguous and polemical concept.
The scientific research of the phenomenon of "cultural authenticity" can be conducted from the perspectives of social constructivism and narrative approach to culture. Authenticity should be scrutinized as a concept which is connected with the notion of "locality". The public discussion devoted to local "indigenous" symbols is followed by their politicisation. The authenticity discourse is connected with power relations and identity politics. One of the trends in the modern politics is the instrumentalisation of authenticity. Institutionalised cultural groups can employ "authenticity" as a political strategy.
Simonova V. Culture as the Time Machine: Interpretation of Space
In the present paper the author analyzes spatial interpretations of the "ethnohistorical past". Based on the empirical data collected in Nanai national villages in Khabarovskii region and in St. Petersburg (lodgings for indigenous people of the North), the article advocates and aims to research "locality" as a discursive practice. The author advocates that ethnographic primordial concepts are elements in the process of creating social illusions and the utopia of strongly desired "home in the past". The author´s endeavour to apply theoretical approaches of anthropology and sociology of space leads up to the idea and existence of romantic escapism connected with the local context, local knowledge of "legacy" and "roots". Understanding of culture from the angle of primordial ties, turns into the fantastic "time machine" which is even more sophisticated than the magic vehicle from the famous book of H.G. Wells. Culture-as-the-time-machine has a more tricky mechanism, because it transports people to the "past realm" of discovered problems and well set up answers for contemporary issues.
SOCIOLOGY OF SCHOOL
Shmankevich T. The School and the City: "Parent´s Strategies" as Civil Society Practices
Can we envisage a school as an environment that creates civil practices? And if so, what are the ways of transforming parents´ strategies in choosing schools and activities within a school into certain civil society practices? The author of this article makes an attempt to give answers by examining data obtained during a field research project in St. Petersburg. Considering schools as a part of an urban environment, the author appeals to the experience of French scientists in studying ways of school and urban environment overlapping.
Nauen M. The Method of Cohort Analysis in Sociology
This article briefly analyses and gives an assessment of the method of cohort analysis in sociology. It outlines the history of the method, points to the basic problems of cohort analysis, and presents the solutions to the problem of differentiation between the effects of age, cohort and historical period. The article also contains the comparison of the cohort analysis with generational analysis and life course analysis, the description of the application of cohort analysis in empirical sociological research, the requirements to empirical data and databases for cohort analysis and the prospects for this method in sociology.
ANTHROPOLOGY OF SPORT
Abdulkarimov S. Aggressiveness in Sport throughout History and Cultural Traditions
The article is devoted to one of the burning topics of the day – the problem of sport aggressiveness. The author regards this problem in the light of history and cultural traditions. For a long time sport fulfills ritual, educational, spectacle and entertainment functions being an instrument of sublimation of aggression in society and an outlet for negative energy. The human aggressiveness is mostly a result of complex interaction between innate genetic instincts and adopted reactions in the course of cultural evolution. Sport aggressiveness is a reflection of these complex social and cultural processes. In the course of cultural evolution people have elaborated different ways to control their emotions and straight aggression had given place to many kinds of competitive games or passive observation of them.
Gopkalo O. The British School of Consumer Revolution Research
The report contains the essence description and main contradictions of consumer revolution concept, its interrelation with consumer society theory, the necessity of drawing the line between these two concepts and of their independent analysis. Intellectual, social and economic prerequisites of consumer revolution are described, systematic view of social changes described by notion "consumer revolution" is provided. The relation between consumer revolution and industrial development is represented in the framework of consumer revolution concept.
Gusaeva K. Interconfessional Relations in Contemporary Dagestan
This report reveals confessional specificity of the Republic of Dagestan which shows in recent years a rapid growth of religious institutions, among them schools and high schools. The revival of Islamic traditions has special significance in contemporary Dagestan. The author makes up a conclusion that religious situation in Dagestan is characterized by rapid growth of public interest in religion and its increasing impact on life in society. However, this quantitative revival of Islam does not lead to progress in moral, spiritual life of Moslems. The Islam has not become a consolidating factor for believers, the factions in Muslim clergy and disagreement among believers even intensified. Analyzing interconfessional relations in Dagestan the author argues that nowadays it is very important to use a positive role of religion in maintenance of peace and consent in the Republic. The freedom of worship and secular state should form the basis of confessional policy that will reduce the risk of politization of religious institutions and will restrain the spread of religious extremism.
Horikawa A. Social Justice: the Japanese Point of View
The paper considers reasons and peculiarities of the emergence of social justice phenomenon in Japan. The Japanese view on justice differs from traditional Western concept tending more towards sensual justice than rational one.
NEWS / INFORMATION
Second Readings on the History of Russian Sociology "Transforming Russian Society: the View from the History of Sociology"
The Second Readings on the History of Russian Sociology "Transforming Russian Society: the View from the History of Sociology" were held at, 16-17 March, 2006.
NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Scott J.C. Seeing like a state. How certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. London, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.
Kiyutina T., Razumovsky O. The Principles of Human Agency Optimization: Philosophical and Methodological Aspects. Krasnoyarsk: KGTEI, 2004. –– 264 p.
Resnick S.A., Wolff R.D. Class Theory and History: Capitalism and Communism in the USSR. New York and London: Routledge, 2002. – 353 p.