SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION
Interview with Professor Alexander Deichsel
Professor Alexander Deichsel answers questions of Rimma Shpakova concerning his life and scientific research, which focuses on brands in a globalizing world.
Deichsel A. Globalization and Brand: the Fields of Tension in International Competition
This paper discusses the importance of a brand as an instrument in the competition between peoples and communities. The author highlights the role of cultural dimensions of a brand and explains the success of a product by brand cultural origins.
HISTORY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
Shpakova R., Gergilov R. Alfred and Max Weber
This article explores the life and works of Alfred and Max Weber and analyses methods they used to treat social phenomena. Their theoretical conceptions are presented in connection with social, political and economic problems of the time. The main task of the paper is to compare their approaches to these problems and to overcome a broadly held view about their unequal contribution to sociology. The innovative character of Alfred Weber´s work is demonstrated.
EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION FOR EVOLUTIONARY POLITICAL ECONOMY
Sinioutin M. European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy: Goals, Interests, and Activities
Dannreuther Ch. Collective Memory and the Centralisation of the British State
"Anglo American" capitalism is premised on the idea of a flexible and unfettered free market economy. Yet the dominant trend in the British economy in the Twentieth Century was one of centralisation. Throughout the period from the beginning of the First World War to the early 1980s, the main trend in economic policy was of centralisation and the rejection of free market capitalism for a centralised and increasingly planned economy. The role of the small firm was not even acknowledged until 1972 and it took a further ten years before any major initiative. This paper seeks to explain the exclusion of the small firm from the British economy. It examines how a combination of key events, new ideas and broadly held perceptions of incompetent businessmen led to the representation of society in economic policy decisions as being almost exclusively as organised labor. Unlike continental Europe, where small firms formed an important part of the state forming bargains of the 1920s, UK small businesses were anachronistic to British society until a greengrocer´s daughter became Prime Minister in 1979.
SOCIAL SPACE OF LABOR
Makarova M. The Transformation of the Working Class under Globalization
The article analyses key sociological concepts of working class and discusses the possibility to identify class and group characteristics of workers. Discussions about "disappearance" of working class are summarized. The problem of effacing class borders is treated in connection with changes in social structure of a modern society. In the structure of modern working class it is possible to differentiate between three types: "proletariat", "working class proper" and "successful workers". These types characterize not only working class, but other social groups as well, reflecting at the same time the complexities in tracing working class borders.
Konkov A. Using Social Capital: a Strategy on American Labor Market
Social capital in the forms of strong and weak social ties provides individuals with unequal opportunities in the process of competition for jobs. Strong ties, that seem to be more available to poor and socially disadvantaged groups, are less efficient in comparison to weak social ties. Weak tie networks tend to provide greater range of opportunities in the competition for jobs. The article explores socioeconomic and cultural factors of those strategies for creating and use of social networks typical to different social strata. It is concluded that social networks based on weak ties constitute an important resource available to highly educated and economically privileged strata of American society, while socially and economically disadvantaged groups lack this resource.
Scheblanova V. Threats and Security: Everyday Resistance Practices
The article represents an attempt to analyze new practices institutionalized in our daily activities in response to such global threat as terrorism. This article is about constructive ways to respond to terrorism not only at the state and interstate structural level, but also at the level of non-profit organizations, regional organizations, secondary education and professional associations. The author suggests approaches to analyze rules of day-to-day behavior related to people´s aspiration for security, using the concepts of day-to-day life and interaction.
Burmykina O. Gender Differences in Health Practices: Explanatory Approaches and Empirical Analysis
The article gives an overview of the explanatory approaches to health practices and gender differences in health related behavior. The author analyses biomedical, socio-medical and contextual approaches to gender differences. Basing on empirical data, the author examines patterns of smoking. She studies relationships between characteristics of smoking behavior, gender, age, education, income, employment status, marital status and family relationships. The major findings of empirical research indicate that gender, age, educational status and family relationships are significant predictors of patterns of smoking. Moreover, gender is the main of these predictors.
Aronson P. Lack of Institutional Trust in Doctor-Patient Relationship as a Reason for Prevalence of Self-healing Practices
This article considers the low level of institutional trust peculiar to post-Soviet Russia to be a crucial explanatory factor for the low usage of medical facilities. Practices of self-healing are regarded not only as the result of professional treatment being unaffordable, but also as a strategy of avoiding interaction with state healthcare institutions. Informal trust networks, which are a characteristic of pre-modern societies, take the place of such institutions. Self-healing practices performed in these networks can improve personal health. However, they can not substitute the coverage, range of services and technical resources of the state institutions. Therefore, individual health is directly negatively affected by the low level of institutional trust, whereas the effect of income levels might have been overestimated.
SOCIOLOGY OF PROFESSIONS
Korneeva A. Contemporary Lawyers: Transforming Professional Practice
This article considers the process of transformation of lawyer´s activities. This process is connected to a passing of law on legal profession, an introduction of the ethical code, and an aspiration of the lawyers´ elite for giving a classical standard to their profession, lost in the Soviet period. In spite of formal declarations about the transformation of a profession, the empirical research shows that lawyers choose another type of rationality. The author uncovers various aspects of lawyer´s activity: a search for clients, stages in pleading a case, a technique of lawyer´s work in court, interactions of lawyers with colleagues and other participants of legal proceedings. A special attention is given to factors that influence pricing of lawyer´s services and to implicit technologies which help to gain a suit at law.
CRIME AND SOCIETY
Rozov N. The Nature of Criminality and Mechanisms of Criminalization of Society
The paper considers the basis of inevitable criminality. The social-anthropological, sociological argument is suggested in opposition to the viewpoint of philosophical anthropology, metaphysics and ethics. The roots of criminality are found in rather universal human needs to achieve and defend property, power, and prestige. These needs while combined with definite configurations of social structure are transformed into criminal attitudes and behavior. At the same time, according to the model of Randall Collins who synthesized Durkheim´s, Marx´s, and Weber´s ideas the criminality occurs "normal" i.e. functional and needed by a stratified society. "Struggle against criminality" is a significant tool of struggle for power, also it justifies an existing regime and inequality. The dynamics of social structures including structures of criminal groups explains not only growth of criminality but also its decline. The encompassing conceptual framework which integrates eight dynamic spheres (from geopolitical shifts and demographical trends to changes of human qualities) and eight social scales (from global level to encounters hic et nunc) is used for a sketch explanation of wide criminalization of Russian society in 1990s.
Pestsov S. Architectonics of the Modern World: Regionalism and International Relations
The paper discusses relations between two major trends of world development: regionalism and globalization. In author´s opinion, regionalism is an effective way to regulate relations in a framework of expanding space that looses its former stability. The author proposes a complex, multilevel construction of regionalism, which is one of fundamental pillars of modern world order.
NEWS / INFORMATION
The First Symposium of EAEPE "Social and Political Economy of Labour"
The First Symposium of EAEPE "Social and Political Economy of Labour: New Dimensions" was held at St. Petersburg State University, Faculty of Sociology, June 29 – July 1 2006.
NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Danilova N. New-Old Histories of Russian Social Work
Need and Order: the History of Social Work in Russia, XXth century / Ed. by P. Romanov, E. Jarskaja-Smirnova. Saratov: Nauchnaya Kniga, Center for Social Policy and Gender Studies, 2005. – 460 p.
Timofeeva K. In Search of Eurasia
Kaiser M. (Hg.) Auf der Suche nach Eurasien. Politik, Religion und Alltagskultur zwischen Russland und Europa. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag, 2004. – 397 S.
IN MEMORIAM. RIMMA SHPAKOVA