SCIENCE: PROFESSION AND VOCATION
Interview with Nicolai Girenko
The expert interview was made in Autumn 2002 as a part of the research project "Intercultural tolerance in a big city: St. Petersburg and Moscow" organized by professor Vladimir Kozlovsky. Nikolai Girenko was one of the leading Russian anthropologists and publicly struggled against all cases of racism, chauvinism and interethnic intolerance. His firm position became the reason of his murder. He gives analytic and highly critical answers to the questions about interethnic conflicts, intolerance and multicultural milieu of a big city. Nikolai Girenko was interviewed by Tatyana Alexeyeva and Ludmila Ismailova.
LIFE COURSE RESEARCH
Blossfeld H.-P., Huinink J. Life Course Research in Social Sciences: Topics, Conceptions, Methods and Problems
Life Course Research has had in recent years a strong impact on the development of German sociology. It opened alternative ways of access to old problematic, raise new substantional questions and stimulated the exploration of new theoretical paths. Many important empirical research projects were effectuated using the advanced quantitative methodology of longitudinal analysis. This paper gives an overview of topics, conceptions, methods and problems related to this rapidly developing research area.
Lomonosova M. Pitirim Sorokin as a politician in Russia and about the politics in America
In the article are considered problems of policy and power in scientific work of an outstanding sociologist of XX century - P.A.Sorokin. It is marked, that the given thinker unites the brilliant sociologist, the politician (the participant of revolutionary events in Russia) and the publicist who has left after itself the huge scientific heritage, appeared insufficiently sensible modern scientific community. The primary goal of the article consists in paying attention of researchers to works "late American period" and to show, that the problematic of power and policy in these works as the roots leaves in Sorokin´s political activity till the moment of exile from Russia. It is marked, that all world outlook and Sorokin´s scientific work has been penetrated by integralism both at a level scientific research programs, and in political views, and even at a level vital philosophy.
SOCIOLOGY OF ENTERPRENEURSHIP
Gaynutdinov R. The Formation of the system of Functional Representation of Russian Business
The article is devoted to the formation of the system of functional representation of Russian business. It describes socio-economic and socio-political issues of business self-organization and points out the main tendencies formulated by the state and aimed to business and society. Author analyzes in details the difficulties of the business corporativization process and, in particular, those associated with the peculiarities of the formation and development of the market system in Russia. It is outlined that the presence of the unified corporate interests consolidating large, medium and small business groups. Despite the fact that the class of Russian entrepreneurs is at the stage of its formation, its interests are crystallizing quite rapidly moving from the indifference in realization of the business interests towards direct and exposed interference into Russian political life.
SOCIOLOGY OF SOCIAL WELFARE
Bogdanova E. Regulating the Jural Relations in the Soviet Society, or "Waiting for the Care"
The article treats the problem of the discursive reproduction of the rules of jural relations in the soviet society. According to the foundations of the classical liberal theory the soviet society is a non-jural society. The question is: if the law does not regulate the jural relation in the soviet society, what does? Adaptation of the "right" category for the soviet social reality permits to define ideology as the central regulating mechanism of the society. Typical model of the jural relations is vertical and it necessary includes the basis of hierarchy and power relations. "Care" is the central ideological category, marking the relations between "elder" and "younger", "powerful" and "powerless", "strong" and "weak" in the ideological discourse. Official rules of the jural relations were reconstructed in analyses of meanings of the category "care" and the order of its using in the soviet ideological discourse at the end of 50s – in the middle of 80s.
SOCIOLOGY OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS
Yasaveyev I. Constructing "Non-problems": Counterrhetorical Strategies
The article analyses the counterrhetorical discursive strategies used by power elites for countering claims, made by activists of social movements, human rights defenders etc. On the basis of constructionist approach to social problems as claims-making activity developed by Malcolm Spector, John Kitsuse and Peter Ibarra it considers how some situations in Russia such as violence in Russian army, corruption and others are excluded from social problems discourse. Some strategies for countering counterrhetoric itself are proposed.
SOCIOLOGY OF MASS PROTEST
Kelasjev O., Kazakov S., Leies A. The Specific of Communicanion Between the Authorities and Inhabitants in Context of Mass Public Protest
Theoretical and methological grounds of analysis of communication practices of interaction between the authorities and inhabitants in conditions of social and political protest are discussed in the article. The scheme of possible levels of interaction between authorities and inhabitants is represented. The paper shows that such interaction is limited to manipulations, persuasion of inhabitants and one-sided informing, which makes a basis for protest movements.
The empirical material is provided by two mass-meetings, which took place in St. Petersburg, one against ongoing social reforms (meeting of protest), the other one in support of these reforms. The classification of techniques, methods and forms of expressing of political protest are presented. The authors express certain opinions about prevention of destructive forms of political protest and organizing full-blooded dialogue between the authorities and inhabitants in contemporary Russia.
Shabaev Y., Zavyalova L., Kovalev V. The evolution of Regional Parliamentarism
The article is treats the problem the of regional parliamentarizm in its social and political context. The political evolution of the parliament of Komi Republic is in the focus of this paper. The special attention is given to the analyze the relation of population to parliament in Komi Republik and the mass opinion about the social role of parliament at local society, about improve parliamentary activity. The article examines the opinions of parliament deputies about its potitical role, its place in system of political institutions and other topics. The possible impact of parliamentary reform is also discussed in the article.
Pipenko Maria. The phenomenon of youth virtual fan practices
The point of this article is about common characteristics of Internet, the peculiarities of youth use of World Wide Web and phenomenon of fandom. On basis of conducted research, the author marks out strategies of fan web-sites visitors, motives of virtual fan practices and communicative practices of fans. It is emphasize that virtual communication is perceived as a stage of communication, that will be continued off-line. As a conclusion the author puts forward an idea that in spite of specificity of the space where youth practices take place, their content and cultural/symbolic significance have the same meanings.
Jarskaja-Smirnova E., Grigoryeva O. "We are the Part of Nature" – The Social Identification of the Healers
The article analyzes the ways of healers´ identification in modern provincial town in Russia in the global context of medical systems integration. In modern multicultural societies the process of medical systems integration is of great demand due to lifestyle polarization and to demand and supply complication in the field of medical services which contains agents with different statuses and legitimacy. Proceeding from content analysis of popular scientific journals and qualitative interview data authors discuss the contradictory discourse on popular medicine; trace the elements of healers´ self-identification, showing the ambiguity of their status. The practical importance of ethnomedical research in anthropology is highlighted.
Kazaliyeva K. The Interethnic Relations of Nogay in the South of Russia
The paper considers the specific features of interethnic relations in the regions with Nogay population. The forms of these relations depend upon social, economic, political, cultural and geographic conditions in which ethnic groups live. The research on Nogay interethnic relations would uncover the character of interethnic processes in highly multiethnic region in Russia – South Federal District. The paper is based on empirical research made in August-September in four regions of South Federal District.
NEWS / INFORMATION
The 2nd Annual United States-Russia Exchanges Symposium
The U.S. Embassy´s 2005 U.S. Exchanges Symposium, held in Moscow May 26-27 drew more than 450 American and Russian participants. It was the largest-ever networking event for U.S. and Russian institutions involved in educational and people-to-people exchanges.
NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Safonova M. The Drama of a Field Researcher: Suspicion as a Method
Ilyin V. Dramatic Approach to Qualitative Field Research. ST. Petersburg: Intersocis, 2006. – 256 P.
Savelyeva S. On Knowledge in Qualitative Methodology: Opening New Horizons
Gotlib A. Qualitative Sociological Research: Epistemological and Existential Horizons. Samara: Univers-Grupp, 2004 – 448 P.
Boronoyev A., Yankov A.
Popkov Y., Kostyuk V., Tuguzhekova V. Ethnic Groups in Siberia under Modern Reforms. Novosibirsk: Izdatelstvo "Nonparel", 2003. – 128 P.