EPISTEMOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF SOCIOLOGY
Pautova L., Figura A. The Problem of Consciousness and Sociological Vocation
Paraphrasing the title of famous essay of philosopher Merab Mamardashvili authors try to draw the contours of sociological research of consciousness. It became possible to differentiate the main dimensions of sociological research of consciousness: individual / collective, exogenous / endogenous, rational / irrational. The most important paradoxes are pointed out: 1) the problem of consciousness plays a secondary role in sociological theory; 2) the contradiction between empiricism in definitions and search of particular essence; 3) reification of hypothetic models; 4) the search of integrative models and avoidance of problem of consciousness at the same time. Authors argue that the transformation of sociological view of consciousness probably means not facing up to this problem but going off.
Safonova T. Uninterpretative Sociology: Stories about Ethnomethodologists
In the article the histories from research practice of ethnomethodologists are told in order to present three basic ethnomethodological policies, such as self observation, problematization and the unique adequacy requirement of methods, which determine the peculiar features of the discipline. Unfortunately, most of social scholars not involved in ethnomethodological investigations underestimate or incorrectly interpret the demands which ethnomethodology as a system makes of its practitioners. The fact that Harold Garfinkel was a student of Talcott Parsons frequently leads to a false conclusion about the succession and involvement of ethnomethodology into the tradition of interpretative sociology of Max Weber. All these misunderstandings prevent development of the discipline in Russia.
URBAN SOCIAL SPACE
Shmelkov A. Cities as Regionalized Social Practices
The present article is the attempt to integrate theoretical approaches to investigation of the city on the basis of the turn to practice. Methodological premise formulated in A. Giddens´ structuration theory permits to consider a city not as the phenomenon but as a continually reproducing process. In this perspective cities appear to be locus of social transformation process.
Galkin D. The Strategies of the Cultural Development of Cities: Some Contemporary Approaches
This text is an attempt to trace the formation and development of cultural policy and cultural planning in modern cities and to highlight some contemporary approaches to the elaboration of cultural development strategies. The author comes to the conclusion that the construction of the cultural spaces of modern cities is directly concerned with the transformation of the practice and discourses of cultural policy, namely the transition from cultural democracy to the economics of culture and finally to the new synthetic discourse of the "creative cities" resting upon the human and cultural capital and oriented both towards tourists and the new "creative class". The development of new cultural planning strategies does not simply answer the purpose of the cultural regeneration of urban environments: it is rather supposed to increase the creative potential of cities and stimulate the development of cultural/creative production infrastructure as a system feature of present-day "creative cities".
Samoilova N., Strizhakova O. "The Wealth" and "the Penury": the Contrasts of Polar Urban Spaces
This article addresses the issue of social segregation in urban environment investigated by the authors by means of spatial organization analysis in Samara and Nizhnekamsk. Using qualitative sociological methods (visual anthropology and semistructured non-participant observation) the authors distinguish a number of characteristics of polar urban groups that are objectified in the markers of physical space. They show that people who possess considerable economic and political capital strive for establishing total control over their residence territory constituting an artificially isolated closed space. On the contrary, the areas subjectively identified by city-dwellers as the typical "space of penury" are characterized by forced openness and the residents´ interdependency, minimal comfort and the lack of protectability.
Bujwicka A., Litova E., Michalska A., Stolbov V. Social and Structural Transformations in Industrial Town: from Prosperity to Depression (Ivanovo and Lodz Textile Industry Centers)
Social and structural transformations in traditional Russian and Polish industrial towns with monocultural economy are determined by the new social and economic model of development. These transformations include the dramatic polarization in urban communities, the formation of social-territorial circles, the intensive migration of intellectuals, the transformation of industrial environments into service sector. The future of these towns is related to the policy of investments attraction and social stabilization.
SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION
Naletova I. The Change of National Traditions of Higher Education under Modern Conditions
This article analyses national traditions of higher education in Europe and United States and how the models of education transform under globalization processes. The problems of university adaptation to modern conditions including the transformation of their management and financing are considered. The relevant aspects of Bologna Process in Europe are discussed.
Smirnova E., Dubrovskaya S. The subject approach in education: conjugation with the Bologna process
This article is dedicated to realization of ideas in Russia. The authors draw attention to subject approach, this implies that participants of process play a crucial role in determining successful results of the process. Subject is the people, who play a significant role in education and have active proved position. The data presented in this text demonstrate primary advantages and problems of the process that is important from point of view of the subjects.
SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION
Morawicki J. St. Petersburg Catholic Community: the Phenomenon of Conversion and the Transformation of Power Relations
The author of this article analyses the processes of religious groups transformation in the contemporary Russian society referring to the empirical materials collected in the course of his fieldwork in the Catholic community in St. Petersburg. Considering the field of religion as a field of struggle for different kinds of capitals he points out that the "priests cohort" formerly played the role of power monopolist in the Catholic group, but nowadays some informal groups of the converted can also partly control the processes of capitals distribution and transformation, e.g. resorting to the educational resource. Correspondingly, the religious identity in the community undergoes significant changes: in recent times it served as an instrument for ethnic identity confirmation, however at present it is associated with educational practices and public activity in increasing frequency.
SOCIOLOGY OF DEVIATION
Shipunova T. Social Exclusion, Alienation, Violence and Aggression as Mechanisms of Reproduction of Deviation
In the article the concept of reproduction in a society of deviation is submitted. This mass phenomenon is examined as reaction to social injustice, made by separate individuals, social groups and a society as a whole. Social injustice can be expressed as social exclusive, alienation, violence and aggression. In the article the maintenance (contents) and volumes of these concepts are defined, classification of forms of violence is built, their characteristics are given, the theoretical problems connected to use of concepts in the practice of prevention of deviation are analyzed.
MULTICULTURALISM AND NATIONAL POLICY
Kuropiatnic A. Immigration and National Society: a Case of France
This article addresses itself to the social and cultural consequences of immigration for modern national societies. In the paper are analyzed peculiarities of migrants in France, problems of inter-ethnic, inter-cultural and inter-confessional communication between immigrants´ minorities and "national majority". The October and November 2005 disturbances in France are considered not as a protest against the "melting-pot" politic, they are considered as a demand for the forming appropriate multicultural social politic, the essential part of which is an immigrants´ politic.
Ilyin V. Dramatic Approach to Situations of In-depth Interviews
The argumentation rests on distinctions, on the one hand, between the information, which is available to the informer, and his or her readiness to share this knowledge with the researcher, on the other. Both actors interpret the situation of the interview as the performance where they have to play their parts representing themselves or their organizations. The informer determines his or her answer to the question "What is going on here?" and "Is it worth to be open with this stranger?" The same event (interview) is dependent on the framework from which it is perceived. Dramaturgic analysis is a scheme of interpretation in which circumstances of interview are more important than pronounced and taped words. The subject of the article is confined to the situation of interview.
NEWS / INFORMATION
The Fourth All Russia Seminar "Sociological Problems of Power Institutions in the Context of Russian Transformation"
The Seminar was held at the Sociological Institute in St. Petersburg 13–16 October 2005.
The Conference "Economy and Society: Problems of Social Justice"
The Conference was organized at the Faculty of Sociology of St. Petersburg State University 17–18 November 2005.
NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Boronoyev A., Vinogradov V.
Golovin N. Theoretical and Methodological Bases of Political Socialization Research. St. Petersburg: Izdatelstvo SPbGU, 2004. –– 288 p.