SOCIAL SPACE OF RUSSIAN SOCIETY
Rjabev V. On a Relationship of the State and the Civil Society in the Modern Russia
The article analyses the main approaches to the civil society and its correlation with democracy. According the point of view presented in this paper the forming of civil society in Russia is impossible without the participation of the democratic state. The state paternalism, non-ideological values of people and their estrangement from power and public life are peculiar features of Russian political culture. Author concludes that the civil society in Russia forms in the situation of social disintegration.
Karmadonov O. Transformation of Symbols and the Symbols of Transformation: A Version of One Socio-Political Suicide
The article deals with the phenomenon of a symbolics in its transformational implications. Some key ideas of leading sociologists concerned with the semantic and imperatives of a social change are being analyzed. The social transformation as such is studied by the author in terms of the equilibrium between the rational and irrational components of a process of alteration of a social framework. As the case study the phenomenon of "perestroika" (1985–1991) was utilized. Author argues that under the certain circumstances an irrationalization can play a determinative part in the process of social change.
Gololobov I. Village as a non-political community: social (dis)organization of the world of proper nouns
The article is devoted to the problem of social organization of rural communities in Russia. On the basis of field observations and some insights found in existing literature the author suggests a thesis on non-political nature of social organization among the rural communities in Russia. Understanding politics as the sphere of collective action where individuals alienate their personal interests for the expense of common interests we can clearly say that the village with its radically personal life world shows us rather peculiar mode of organizing its life. This in its turn, explains quite specific relations of Russian village with the state and power as such.
SOCIOLOGY OF SOCIOLOGY
Radov A. Mental and "objective" field of modern Russian sociological empirical inquiries
The work stands on a narrow side between normative and descriptive methodology. This is a new area in methodology of science — methodology in action. Sociological empirical researches present in the form of the special fields, treatable as an objects of normal sociological analysis. The model with objectiv (real), mental and ideal (normative) field of empirical sociological inquiries is offered and argued. By means of the given model, and with some special concepts the unique data file received during two independent researches (using content-analysis) on one object — articles in the most large sociological edition of Russia — "Sociological investigations" is analyzed. Data are represented graphically by means of rare labour-consuming technics "carotids" — maps of ideal spaces. The data link agent allowing to do a conclusion about structure and morphogenesis of the Russian empirical sociological researches is the location of empirical inquiries. The author makes a number of conclusions about morphostasis of various elements in space of modern empirical researches in Russia and assess some features of empirical sociology at whole.
Pogorelov F., Sokolov M. Academic Markets, Segments of Profession and Intellectual Generations: Fragmentation of St. Petersburg Sociology
This article explores fragmentation of the St. Petersburg sociological community. Three segments of sociological profession, oriented to institutions of international science, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Russian educational institutions are described. Results of a survey, informal interviews, participant observation, and statistical analysis of biographical data on St. Petersburg sociologists are presented which are used to draw career and intellectual profiles of members of each segment. The second part of the article offers an interpretation of the differentiation observed in terms of Pierre Bourdieu´s theory of symbolic struggle. It is argued that the segmentation reflects the competition by the generations of Russian sociologists for the markets of intellectual production.
SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION
Dudina V. Expert Cultures and Hidden Curriculum in Higher Education
The article presents a theoretical model of hidden curriculum in higher education and analyses its influence on reproduction of expert cultures in modern society. It is considered how the practices of studying in higher education influence the forming of expert structures of a modern society and determine the specificity of expert cultures; how hidden norms, rules and models of behaviour in the academic field influence future professional activity. The following functions of hidden curriculum in higher education are examined: professional socialization, social reproduction and socialization in the academic field. Such structural features of hidden curriculum as arbitrary selection of subjects, textbooks and syllabuses, organization of teachers and student communication, selective reword system, physical environment are identified.
SOCIOLOGY OF GENDER
Danilova N. Draftees, Jackets and Professionals: Masculinities of Post-Soviet War Soldiers
This article is analyzed the different types of masculinities which are presented different social-professional groups of militaries. The aim of analysis is a presentation of different types of military masculinities and analysis of resources and "configuration of social practice" is formed it. Theoretically in the article is used the concept of plurality masculinity by R. Connel and military professionalism by S. Huntington. Veterans narratives are divided into three parts: narratives of draft soldiers — "srochniki"; narratives of draft officer — "pidzhaki" (jacets), who was drafted after the colledge; narratives of proffessional officers — "proffessionals". This study is empirically based on original texts were written by the participants of last wars.
SOCIOLOGY OF ART
Magidovich ?. Professional strategies for emigrant artists
The social identity of artist, acting as self-employed worker at labor and art markets simultaneously is risky enough as a result of the uncertain demand and supply variations. This uncertainty is much more in the case of emigrant artist who isn´t prepared to the market conditions of new country. Basing on biographies and carriers of Russian artists who left Russia between 1917 and 1988, as well as on review data of the contemporary Russian painters working in France and Finland, the article enlightens relations between the artist age, education, training and experience on one part and his market success on other. It is shown that the most successful were such the emigrant painters whose professional education had place in the countries of their residence. On the other hand the great part of the young Russian emigrants gave their preference to Czechoslovakia and Balkan countries where they had good possibilities for art education and training.
The statistical processing of available data shows that France was a main attraction center for Russian painters in spite of the market condition changes during more than 80 years. The reasons for that are following:
1. The cultural unity between France and Russia rooted in traditions from 17-th age.
2. The place of Paris as a legitimated expertise center for art work valuation.
3. Its geographical position allowing good communication with the other European cultural centers. These reasons are critical for emigrant artist allocation.
Wiener B. Forms of Ethnicity, Possibility of Essences among Ethnoses, and What Supporters of Academician Bromley Can Take from New Theories
The article deals with notions of ethnicity and ethnos and with theoretical orientations behind these notions in Russian scholastic literature beginning from the end of 1980s, namely Tishkov´s "methodological individualism" and structural constructivist approach of Il´in. The author finds that in fact there are only minor differences between Bromley´s and Tishkov´s concepts of ethnicity. He also criticizes Il´in´s approach to ethnicity based on writings of Bourdieu arguing that such an approach underestimates creative aspects of human agency.
Gromova E., Gerasimova M., Shpara K. Middle class in St. Peterburg
The article is devoted to psychographical characteristics of the new middle class — a peculiar stratum of the modern Russian society.
From the authors´ point of view, the affiliation with the new Russian middle class is concerned with a special mentality rather than with income level. The lifestyle, characteristic for representatives of this part of the society, isn´t connected so much with their financial position — it is defined by an hierarchy of basic values in their consciousness. The article is based on results of COMCON-SPb syndicate research projects.
Zhukov K. St. Petersburg and the Empire: an attempt of journalistic therapy
The core meaning of constructing the city of St. Petersburg was to build the capital city of Russian Empire. Hence imperial idea was an essential part of its residents´ mentality for a long time. Should the contemporary city identity lean on the elements of that imperial consciousness, considering they apparently correspond to nowadays democratic values? Is it possible to relate the present city identity to its imperial past?
The work by a St. Petersburg teacher and journalist K. Zhukov puts up and studies these questions. The author´s answers are negative. He suggests to look for alternative reference points in a different historical period — in the times dating back to the period before Peter the Great´s times when the Neva basin used to belong, first, to the Grand Novgorod principality and then to the Kingdom of Sweden. In those days there used to be a lot of settlements and the lifestyle of their inhabitants matched the burgher cultural model similar to the cultural model characteristic for Western-European medieval cities.
NEWS / INFORMATION
The IVth Gender Young Scholars´ Conference "Gender Relationships in the Modern Society: Global and Local"
The Conference was held in St.Petersburg on 22–23.09.04.
The Scientific-Practical Young Scholars´ Conference "Consumption as Communication"
The Conference was organized at the Faculty of Sociology of St. Petersburg State University 29–30.06.05.
NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Simonian R. Reflecting on the Book. Zh. Toshenko. Ethnocracy: history and contemporaneity (sociological studies). M.: ROSSPEN, 2003. 432 p.
Korneichuk B. V. Inozemtsev. Limits of the "overtaking" development. M.: Economika, 2000. 295 p.