Kozlovsky V. Sociology in the Russian Context
SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION
Interview with Professor Valentina Jarskaja
Professor Valentina Jarskaja answers questions of JSSA editor Vladimir Kozlovsky concerning her scientific career and issues of sociology and social anthropology in a modern world.
Jarskaja V. Violence versus Nation?
Social anthropological reflection of violence means awareness in its cultural and social origins, its genesis since ancient times and to the most refined modernity, its reproduction in various forms. The article demonstrates violence as a phenomenon of culture, an institutional trait of social processes and relations. The interest to the social anthropological sources and consequences of violence increases, yet still there is a lack of serious research of social discrimination, everyday racism, cultural factors of violence, especially in its extreme forms. The issues that are promoting the reproduction of violence are rarely discussed – those issues are rooted within the society, in mass consciousness, life styles, stereotypes of conduct, which embrace all spheres of the society, from family to army. The author considers an issue of tolerance formation as an important condition for the development of Russia as a state, criticizes a contemporary policy trend towards monoculturalism and monoconfessionalism, and emphasizes the importance of education in social and cultural anthropology.
HISTORY OF RUSSIAN SOCIOLOGY
Kozlovsky V., Braslavsky R. From the Academic History of Sociology towards the Historical Sociology of Russia: Some Research Materials concerning I. Golosenko´s Work
This paper presents the work of the outstanding Russian historian of sociology Igor Golosenko. His research on the history of Russian sociology of the XIXth – XXth century and his analysis of the main sociologists of that time, including P. Sorokin and N. Timasheff set high methodological standards for every future research in this sphere. This materials show the transformation of I. Golosenko´s scientific interests from the traditional history of sociology towards the historical sociology of Russia.
Golosenko I. The Higher-Ups: An Essay on the History of Russian Sociology of the Officialdom (the End of the XIXth – the Beginning of the XXth Century)
This is the unfinished research on the history of Russian sociology of the officialdom containing two parts. The first part is the concise social history of this group. The second part distinguishes several stages in the investigation of this group by XIXth – XXth century social scientists.
Bogdanova E. The Structure of Trust in the "Client – Bank" Relationships
The article is concerned with the discussion on creating clients´ trust in ordinary savings operations with Russian banks. The structure of trust supposed by P. Sztompka is considered within the frames of Russian financial system, its history and specific character. Major attention is paid to the analysis of bank´s trustworthiness assessed by clients on the basis of their experience and calculations as well as to the role that secondary objects of trust play in the creation of trust expectations towards the financial institution. The necessity of distinguishing between trust expectations and trusting behavior (i.e. depositing) is underlined as it is supposed that real trust towards banks appears only when clients implement their expectations in practice.
ANTHROPOLOGY OF SCIENCE
Demina N. Defending the Ph.D. Thesis: The Rites of Institution in the Academic Community
The article treats the process of the border crossing between science and outer world as a kind of initiation into scientific community. Defending the Ph.D. thesis is the crucial event in this process. A. van Gennep´s notion rite of passage and P. Bourdieu´s notion rite of institution provide a valuable tool for the analysis of the academic evaluation and quality of the academic expertise in modern Russia.
Forrat N. Professional Autobiography: The Presentation of the Self by the Young Scholars
The article represents the results of the research of the autobiographies (resumes) by the young Russian scholars´ sent attached to applications for the School of Younger Author (a training of academic writing). The dramaturgical approach of E. Goffman is used as the main theoretical frame of the research; accordingly the autobiographies are considered to be an act of interaction between the applicant and the selection committee. The assumption is that the authors of the studied texts attempt to construct the image of the perfect applicant to be selected. The article describes the images of an official scholar, an active personality, a dedicated scholar and a unique bright personality as well as the techniques used for their construction.
Kardinskaya S. Constructing Ethnic Identity: The Youth Organization of Russian Germans in Izhevsk
The article presents the results of the research study of Russian Germans –– representation of the youth organization "Yugendhaim". As a result of content-analysis of the organization´s publication The Yuhei the concept of ethnic identification in the sphere of communication has been constructed. This youth organization presenting itself in the press forms the discourse space of actualization of ethnic identity. Identification occurs as self-determination of ethnic discourse within structures "one of us" / "alien", "we" / "they". The ethnic discourse presented in mass media, creates a "place" for expression of specific "German" ethnicity realizing itself through forming the discourse based on use of a metaphor "home" ("the youth´s home"). The theoretical basis for interpretation of the empirical material obtained is provided by Pierre Bourdieu´s concept of a social field.
Peshkova V. Staging Ukrainian Identity: Some Cultural Practices of Representation of the Ethnic Difference in Moscow
The main issue of author´s thesis is that ethnic staging is important as a mechanism of ethnic community self-preservation and of presentation ethnicity in public sphere in modern multiethnic cities of Russia. According to the case study of the Ukrainian community, ethnic staging can be considered as the stage performances or single measures demonstrating ethnicity. Due to the visibility of ethnic symbols, the awareness of ethnic belonging is derived also from the constant interactions with the other representatives of this ethnic community. By means of staging new members are included in the community. The individual ethnic identity is reinforced as the symbolic construction of ethnic community takes place.
ANTHROPOLOGY OF LAW
Bocharov V., Ryabikin A. Customary Law in Russian Political Discourse in the Time of Landed Property Reforms
This article deals with the ongoing landed property reform in Russia. Authors argue that problems which appear in the process of reforming are related to Russian law culture. The complex nature of landed property in customary law leads to sharp political debates. Authors arrive at a conclusion that customary law norms are the organic part of politicians´ mind reproducing traditional layers of law culture. The reference to customary law norms is made without politicians´ reflection. These norms themselves determine the attitude towards landed private property.
Krutkin V. Family Photos from Anthropological Point of View
Photographing has introduced a new experience of vision into everyday life, has given new tool to a body of the person putting in the center of human experience the body, not the consciousness. It is interesting to analyze not only the photographing of events, but also the event of photographing. In this place develops experience impossible outside of this ritual: the control over a situation through its standardization, rubrication, hierarchization. Here starts the ideology of visual forms, imposing norms of photographing and understanding the sense of images.
To acquire social experience means, besides other things, to master its visual part: a skill to see (to look) and a skill to be seen (to be looked). To be looked is a step "to be I". The social control lies behind the "censorship of being looked". An album as a form of popular culture and some kind of folklore, stores sets of the precedent images, allowing judgment about social changes.
Goryunov A., Khlopushin R. The Market of Traditional Medicine in Saint-Petersburg
The research materials presented here demonstrate a significant demand for traditional medicine in Saint-Petersburg. However, in today´s Russia this medicine is in conflict with official health care system. This report points to the efforts made by world specialists for the elaboration of the model dealing with possible cooperation of traditional and official medicine.
NEWS / INFORMATION
Young Scholars´ Conference "The Social and Cultural Space of a City" The Conference was organized at the Faculty of Sociology of St. Petersburg State University 27–28 October 2004.
The Third All Russia Seminar "Sociological Problems of Power Institutions in the Context of Russian Transformation"
This seminar was held at the Sociological Institute in St. Petersburg 14–16 October 2004.
NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Sokolov M. Sociological Solipsism: The Analysis of a Scientific Position