THE JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

2004, volume VII,
issue 1.


Abstracts

EDITOR´S PREFACE

Kozlovsky V. Practical Sense in Sociology

SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION

Interview with Professor Randall Collins

Professor Randall Collins answers questions of JSSA editor Vladimir Kozlovsky and professor Valeria Vasilkova concerning his life, scientific career and issues of sociology in a modern world.

Collins R. The Program of Interaction Ritual Theory

A theory of interaction ritual is the key to micro-sociology, and micro-sociology is the key to much that is larger. The center of micro-sociological explanation is not the individual but the situation and how they shape individuals; situations generate and regenerate the emotions and the symbolism that charge up individuals and send them from one situation to another. Therefore, interaction ritual theory is a theory of social dynamics, not merely of statics. The term "ritual" has been used roughly in the fashion of Emile Durkheim and Erving Goffman: i.e. ritual is a mechanism of mutually focused emotion and attention producing a momentarily shared reality, which thereby generates solidarity and symbols of group membership.

CLASSICS OF RUSSIAN SOCIAL THOUGHT

Pogodin S. V.O. Kluchevsky´s Sociological Method

V. Kluchevsky - an outstanding Russian historian who proposed an early formulation of the problem of sociological method in history. He had not written sociological works stricto sensu but sociological method in the study of history permeates all his writings.

Lappo-Danilevsky A. V.O. Kluchevsky´s Historical Views

A. Lappo-Danilevsky is a prominent Russian historiographer. This article is a reprint of a paper originally published in a collection of essays for the memory of V. Kluchevsky (Kluchevsky V.O.: Portraits and Recollections. Moscow, 1912). The main historical and historiographical works are considered with a special attention paid to V. Kluchevsky´s sociological method.

THEORETICAL PROBLEMS OF SOCIOLOGY

Katchanov Y. The Dichotomy "Sociological Constructivism / Scientific Realism" and its Overcoming

The article analyses the opposition sociological constructivism / scientific realism as one of the distinction that constitutes the sociological theory. It presents the reconstruction of the dichotomy which bases on the notion of a double structuration of social reality: objective and subjective. The contradiction between sociological constructivism and scientific realism is synthesized as the conceptual matrix of "relationalism".

ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY

Granovetter M. Economic Institutions as Social Constructions: A Framework for Analysis

Institutional economics has moved from a position, earlier in the twentieth century, of drawing eclectically on several other disciplines, to a stance of building its arguments almost entirely out of neoclassical materials. This paper argues that such a stance cannot provide a persuasive account of economic institutions, and suggests a broader foundation based on classical sociological arguments about the embeddedness of economic goals and activities in socially oriented goals and structures. Emphasis is placed on how economic activity comes to be coordinated by groups of people rather than carried out by isolated individuals. Firms in developing countries, business groups, and the origins of the electrical utility industry in the United States are posed as cases of the "social construction of economic institutions". It is argued that, although proper analysis of such cases involves a high level of contingency, these contingencies can be taken into account in a systematic theoretical argument, and that historicist pitfalls can be avoided. Such an argument is posed as the distinctive agenda for a new economic sociology.

Blyacher L., Zelikova Y. The Cultural Specificity of Trans-border Economic Interaction (Khabarovsk and Saint-Petersburg)

This article analyses the perception of border and border region by the participants of intercultural economic interaction. The trans-border dialogue reveals itself in three types of cultural interaction space: first, the space of "big" interaction where myths connected with border are actualized; second, the space of close interaction related to personal perception of the other; third, the space-"medium" - a special social sphere providing the interaction of two economic systems.

SOCIOLOGY OF DEVIANCE

Gurvich I., Tzvetkova L., Shchyur N. Drug Consumption among Students: Some Behavioral Characteristics

This presentation of research on a drug use behavior deals with 400 students of Saint- Petersburg State University, selected by the quota sampling which is representative of student subpopulation. The influence of macro-social factors, social-organizational factors of higher education institute, value and personal characteristics of the students on the initial drug use and forming of drug addiction is described. The empirical data demonstrate the reasons of the insufficient effectiveness of existing drug prevention programs. The measures directed to the control of drug use by the students of higher education institutes are suggested.

EDUCATION: A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE

Andreeva O., Kabatskov A. The Institutional Crisis of Education through the Prism of Professional Culture

Considering the phenomenon of the so-called second higher education, authors discover deep sociocultural tendencies related to modernization. The analysis of professional culture, which follows the methodology of Max Weber (in particular his idea of rationalization) leads to the conclusion that industrial society cannot be constructed without the rational impact on social world. However, the practices of getting the second higher education show the return to traditionalist values with the help of pseudo-rational methods. Thus, the social project of industrial market society is endangered.

Leibovich O., Shushkova N. At the Crossroads: Social Institution of Higher Education in Post-soviet Age

The article explores the details of sociocultural crisis of higher educational system in contemporary Russia: genesis of crisis, its content and forms, social and cultural consequences. The article discusses the irreversibility of institutional change in educational system in connection with dominant trends in contemporary social life. It stresses corruption practices and their influence upon lecturer´s professional culture and student?s subculture. Desinstitutionalization of higher educational system leads to basic changes of university social functions.

ETHNOCULTURAL POLICY

Bocharov V. A Dialogue with Power (or the Power and Science)

This brief introduction to ethnocultural policy problematic traces some patterns of relationship between power and science and invites to a future discussion.

Amelin V. Ethnocultural Policy in a Multiethnic Region

The article deals with the problems of xenophobia and the conditions of toleration in the Russian society. The article states that the present ethnocultural policy favors the raise of Russian citizens´ toleration, and helps the destruction of the negative stereotypes towards some representatives of ethnic groups.
The paper gives a description of multiculturalism policy carried out by governmental institutions and non-governmental institutions in a border, multiethnic, polyconfessional subject of the Russian Federation - Orenburg Region. The positive results of this work are shown.

REPORTS

Muzdybaev K. Life Strategy of Modern Youth: Intergenerational Analysis

By means of cohort analysis a social and moral-psychological profile of modern youth is revealed against a background of the characteristics of the senior generations. Research of time perspective and attitudes to time have shown that in contrast to the senior generations the youth places values mainly in present and forthcoming the periods of life. On characteristics of personality the younger generation is more optimistic, they have higher feeling of possible (hope), than the respondents from the senior generations. On personality traits the modern young people are more internal, they believe more in the just world, rather than representatives of the senior age groups. In accordance with analysis all these qualities at youth are connected in many respects to high motivation of achievement, purposefulness in behaviour and ability to manage life circumstances and to achieve life purposes. At the same time it is established that young generation is egoistical, envious, vindictive in contrast to the senior generation burdened with restrictions and social duties. The analysis of strategy for coping with economic insufficiency at different age groups shows that in comparison with the senior generations the young people more often use the rational, productive forms of behaviour.

NEWS / INFORMATION

The Second All-Russian Seminar "Sociological Problems of Power under Conditions of Russian Transformation"

Presented are debates developed by participants of the seminar, which had been organized in St. Petersburg 15 - 17.10.2003. Debates were focused on local Russian elites, regional political regimes, and research methodology.

NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES

Pachenkov O.

Malachov V. "The Discreet Charm of the Racism" and Other Essays. M.: Modest Kolerov i "Dom Intellektualnoy Knigi", 2001. - 176 p.

Sikevich Z. The Transformation of Ethnicity

Drobizheva L.M. Social Problems of the Interethnic Relations in Post-Soviet Russia . M.: Tsentr Obshchelovecheskich Zennostei, 2003. - 376 p.

Mind the Plagiarism!


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