SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION
Interview with Professor Garold Zborovsky
Professor Garold Zborovsky answers questions of JSSA editor Vladimir Kozlovsky concerning his life, scientific career and issues of sociology in a modern world.
Zborovsky G. On Periodization of the History of Sociology
This paper advocates for the complex criterion of the periodization of the history of sociology, which implies space, time, and content characteristics (including individual authors) of each stage of development of this discipline. The classical stage (from the 30s of the XlXth century to the 20s-30s of the XXth century) is divided into early and late periods. The specific features of the modern stage of sociology development (from the 30s of the XlXth century up to now) are considered. In the modern stage four periods are characterized: the 20s-30s, the 40s-60s, the 70s — the first half of the 80s, the second half of the 80s — the beginning of the XXIst century.
CLASSICS OF RUSSIAN SOCIAL THOUGHT
Kokorev A. B. Chicherin´s Sociological Conception"The Classics of Russian Social Thought" proposes the essay treating the work of the outstanding Russian social thinker of the XlXth century — B. Chicherin and a republication of the fourth chapter from the first part of his book "Sociology" — "The Relation of Society to State". Chicherin was he first among Russian social thinkers who published the work under the title "Sociology" in 1896, which is the second part of his trilogy "Kurs gosudarstvennoy nauki" ("The Course on the Science of State").
Chicherin B. The Relation of Society to State
GLOBALIZATION AND REGIONALIZATION
Bielinis L. The Electronic Democracy: Politics in Global Communication
In the context of the theory of information society this paper investigates the possible scenarios of electronic democracy: optimistic (the possibility of direct participation for all) and pessimistic (the social and technological restrictions, the risk of information terror). The instruments of electronic politics and the place of a citizen and a state in virtual space are discussed.
M. Kleineberg., M. Kaiser. "Eurasia" — Phantom or Realistic Model for the Development of Russia?
The article tries to juxtapose two different meanings of the term "Eurasia" which usually do not communicate which each other. On the one hand Eurasia and Eurasianism are the keywords in a political-ideological debate on Russia´s fate and identity after the collapse of the Soviet Union. On the other hand there is the modest beginning of an empirically based discussion among social scientists, as to how today´s Russia really is going eastward, thus becoming part of a greater Eurasian space. Against this background the authors ask, whether the ideological and political concepts formulated by the new Eurasianists can serve as an interpretative pattern facilitating to understand and explain Russia´s actual developments towards Eurasia. Free from illusion the authors come to the conclusion that todayrs Eurasianists are far away from fulfilling such a function. Due to their origin in geopolitical and geostrategic thinking they are not able to grasp with empirical phenomena that have their roots not in conflicts of power over zones of geographical influence but in actual social, economic, and ethnical changes of the Russian society.
SENSE AND MEASURE OF TOLERATION
Khomyakov M. Toleration: A Paradoxical Value
The paper analyses Western (liberal theories of toleration and traces new approaches to this problem. In liberal theories two types of definitions are distinguished: the weak (toleration as any nonviolent attitude up to indifference) and the strong (making a distinction between toleration and indifference from the one hand and toleration and intolerance from the other). Both definitions raise the question about limits of toleration. Moreover, the strong definition leads to classical analytical and practical paradoxes (e. g., the paradox of values). The way out of this situation is seen in the pluralism of toleration paradigms, in considering it as a way of value affirmation.
Koltzova E., Taratuta E. The Measurement of Toleration
This article presents results of the study carried out by St.Petersburg research group, that was a part of a multi-regional project coordinated by Glasnost Defense Foundation in 2002. The goal of the project was to develop a methodology of revealing and monitoring intolerant texts in printed press. The methodology itself takes form of detailed instructions and is meant to be used by NGt5s and public authorities. It is based on an understanding of intolerance free from political preferences which allows finding elements of intolerance in highly legitimized discourses. At the same time this understanding means that discrimination between politically "permissible" and "???-permissible" intolerance has to be made beyond the monitoring. Thus our work has resulted not only in an instrument for purely applied tasks, but also in some conceptual insights concerning typical structure and inner organization of intolerant discourses. With these results being presented in this article, we draw special attention to theoretical and methodological difficulties that we encountered during our work, and to their possible solutions.
Zinovyev A. The Role of Discourse in the Organization of Political Positions
This article analyses two main directions in discourse studies. The first one takes its origin in R. Barthes´ works and finds its full development in M. Foucault´s discursive conception of power. The other one is related to J. Habermas´ work which uses discourse for the explication of communicative action, here discourse is the discussion generating in the public sphere. By political position is meant the result of politician´s social trajectory (P. Bourdieu) as contrasted to subjective meaning of political position.
The role of discussion in the organization of political position (as opposed to discursive power) is studied by the calculation of ((references to other" in speeches of party leaders of modern Russia (their disposition to communicative action). With the growth of cultural capital in positions of party leaders the role of public sphere also grows and political positions related to public sphere and politician´s social trajectory become leading. On the contrary, the growth of economic capital in political positions leads to the increase of the discourse in Foucault´s sense.
Svallfors S. Institutions, Attitudes and Political Choices
This paper addresses the theme of the normative foundation of social policies. It implies taking a closer look at the attitudes, aspirations, and motivations of policy-makers and the public at large, in explaining and interpreting changes in social policy. The paper contribute to this topic by the discussion of the comparative research on attitudes among the populations of Western countries. First, the general arguments for comparative attitude research are presented and some methodological pitfalls in such research discussed. After that, data from the International Social Survey Program are used to illustrate how one could tackle an important question in contemporary comparative research on public policies that is, whether we find signs of ideological convergence among Western political economies.
EUROPEAN MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIAN EDUCATION
Demidova I., Menshikova G., Smirnova E. Bologna Process and Possible Transformation of Russian Higher School
The article deals with the problems of European Integration, which is known as Bologna process. Here are described its causes, main branches, and the first results. Main attention is given to analyses of Russian attitude to it.
Safonova T. The Organized Cult of Nature: "New Totemism" and Inspector Service in a Nature Reserve
The article is based on the materials of field research made by the author in one of the nature reserves of the country. The main methods of the research were participant observation and biographical interview. The Professionalisierung der Lebenswelt process was analyzed by the example of inspector service. The ethnographical description of the bureaucratic organization of the nature reserve (namely its objects, categories of personnel, hierarchy and resources) made an opportunity to show the inspector´s position in this structure. The central phenomenon of the interior professional mobility in the inspector service is the, so called, "new totemism". This category points at the specific worship for animal, which is chosen as the part of typical strategy of building the personal professional world.
Girenko N. The Legislation on Extremism in the Context of Social Anthropology
Author analyses correlation of judicial acts of the Russian Federation in the field of interethnic relation with social reality as its subject. Necessity to define the social content of the normative acts is stressed, the latter being regarded as the subject matter not of jurisprudence but rather of social anthropology. Some working definitions are suggested, which, as the author thinks, would make the essence of normative acts more concrete and viable in the field of counteraction to extremism and ethnical intolerance.
NEWS / INFORMATION
International Academic Conference "International Cooperation of Russian Universities: Bologna Process and the Concept of Modernization of Education"
This is a review of the conference "International Cooperation of Russian Universities: Bologna Process and the Concept of Modernization of Education". The Conference was organized by the Ural A.M. Gorky State University with support of Ural Inter-regional Institute of Social Sciences.
The review focuses on Bologna process and the Concept of Modernization of Education and considers the most topical issues of Russian system of education, prospects of its development and its transformations caused by European processes. The brief reviews of the following contributors are presented: L.S. Grebnev, Deputy Minister of Education of Russian Ferderation, V. V. Nesterov, Councillor on Education of the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President in the Ural Federal District, N.N. Khridina, Deputy Rector of Saint-Petersburg University, V.B. Kasevitch, V.P. Prokopyev, Deputy Rector on Issues of Education, foreign and Russian lecturers.
The review also includes the final document of the conference which contains recommendations and suggestions of participants of the conference on reforming the system of education of Russian Federation.