THE JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

2003, volume VI,
issue 2.


Abstracts

SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION

Interview with Professor Leonid lonin

Professor Leonid lonin answers questions of JSSA editor Vladimir Kozlovsky concerning his life, scientific career and sociology issues in a modern world.

SPECIAL VIEW

lonin L. The Genital Constitution of Modernity

Based on the theories of S. Freud on the decisive role of sexuality and in particular of genital sexuality in development of knowledge and culture, author seeks to find structural homology between the two different or even opposite structures, these being the cognitive structure of the "modern" from the one side and genital sexuality from another. Thus the main conclusion of the study is the decisive role of the latter factor in respect to the former one. Meaning that the cognitive perspective of the modernity was the implication of men´s genital sexuality. The article also studies the issues of peculiarities between feminine and masculine sexuality and the balance between the nature, culture and sexuality.

CLASSICS OF RUSSIAN SOCIAL THOUGHT

Osipov I. Beyond Liberalism and Conservatism: V.S. Solovyev´s Social Quest (To the 150th Anniversary of his Birth)

This article analyzes the social and philosophic conception of a great Russian thinker V.S. Solovyev. The importance of Solovyev´s ideas for Russian philosophy and sociology is stressed, together with their importance for the modern period of Russian culture.

Malinov A. V.S. Solovyev and N.I. Kareev

This paper treats the chronological and intellectual relations between V.S. Solovyev (1853 1900) and N.I. Kareev (18501931), including Kareev´s critique of metaphysics in history and social studies and Solovyev´s critique of positivism.

Solovyev V. Idols and Ideals

A republication of V. Solovyev´s article first appeared in "Vestnik Evropy" (Vol. II. 1891).

GLOBALIZATION

Castaingts-Teillery J. The Asymmetric Exchange: a Case of Emerging Countries

The mechanisms of reproduction of structural inequalities in the system of international trade are considered related to the situation of emerging countries, in particular, Mexico. Five kinds of conditions forming an asymmetric exchange between the dominant and dependent countries are allocated: 1) inequality of a technological level and salaries; 2) role of monopolies and currency; 3)corruption and cultural domination; 4(structural weakness of regions; 5) effect of a boomerang.

POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

Gelman V. Political Elites and Strategies of Regional Identity

Why regional identity sometimes matters in politics and sometimes not? The article analyzes the emergence and development of the politics of regional identity in contemporary Russia through the prism of the rational choice theory as a product of activity of regional elites, who use identity as a resource in their own interests. These interests might be addressed inside the region (toward local residents or internal actors) and/or outside it (toward external actors). The regional identity considered here as a sort of symbolic production that should be sold on internal and/or external political markets through the use of strategies of "symbolic management". The "crucial case" of Novgorod Oblast´ in 1990s - early 2000s demonstrates the logic and mechanisms of these strategies of regional identities by political elites of this region. The implications of such a case study could be a "point of departure "for testing of the proposed model of regional identity-building in theoretical and comparative perspective.

SOCIOLOGY OF FAMILY

Golod S. The Monogamous Family Perspective: Comparative Intercultural Analysis

This article discusses the unsuccessful attempts by sociologists, demographers and futurists to imagine a family of XXIth century. To the author´s mind, it is due to the ideological blindness and "heartless" empiricism. Two systems of coordinates are offered: predictable a result of the analysis of global structural shifts, and unpredictable in relation to detailed scripts. In other words, there are no reasons to interpret empirical patterns, e.g. what would be the future of single-child families. To the contrary, it is worth proposing some theoretical considerations which point to directions of institutional transformation. The latter is the main concern of the present article.

Klyotsin A. The Division of Homework between Mates: Facts, Problems, Interpretations

This is a review of recent empirical research on allocation of homework among family members ("facts" and attitudes); the various mechanisms and factors of gender division of labour are presented; theoretical approaches toward allocation of homework are described and discussed. A special attention is paid to feminist (gender) evaluations, studies and interpretations concerning the division of homework.

Tarando E. The Family and the Property: Interaction and Development in Modern Societies

The article deals with the investigation of the influence of modern development of property on the institute of family. The crisis of the traditional family is analyzed, the tendencies of family´s development that proceed from the socialization of property are determined.

ETHNIC STUDIES

Popkov V. The Community of Afghan Refugees in Moscow: Structure and Identity

The article is devoted to the problems of identity of the Afghan refugees in Russia and also to the analyses of communication nets of the Afghan community in Moscow. The Afghan migrants in Moscow represent quite a unique union, which absolutely differs from other communities of ethnic Diasporas. The basis for such a thesis lies in the existence of such a community, which comprises several ethnic groups connected by a wider notion of "common Afghans identity. The Afghan community represents a net structure. Traditional (hierarchical) structures as ideal models can be characterized by their "stepped nature" of institutions with a definite vertical construction, by flows of decisions "from the top to the bottom" and by the presence of strongly marked leader´s position. On the contrary to the latter the Afghan community creates a line net organization with numerous of cells (links), in which leader´s position is not so strongly pronounced. Belonging to the Afghan community and contacts with the countrymen are considered to be valuable. If a person for this or that reason is excluded from communication net, he then loses the possibility of getting information circulating among these close group of "close" people and in this case the contacts with his countrymen are not considered as vital.

ANTHROPOLOGY OF SCIENCE

Schepanskaja T. "The Fieldworker": a Figure and Activity of the Ethnographer in Expedition Folklore (Research on Auto-ethnography)

The role of informal professional tradition in formation and maintenance of some methods and stereotypes of field ethnographic research is considered. The analysis of "folklore" (narratives and songs) created in expeditions reveals a number of metaphors and images designing the fieldwork as a specific communicative situation. In particular, the folklore fixes strategies of symbolic identification of the ethnographer with his object and, on the contrary, strategies of maintenance of a distance necessary for observing "from outside". The tradition, possibly more than formal rules, defines the balance between these two strategies and determines concrete means of their realization in the field.

Fishman O. Current Issues of Fieldwork

This report treats the actual problems of fieldwork organization and methods: repeated fieldwork, working with informants of various ages and with a non-Russian population, the fieldwork ethics, the verification of knowledge, the impact of fieldworker and informant personality on the received information, the problem of the researcher influence on the population studied.

NEWS/INFORMATION

The First All Russian Conference "Social Sciences and Humanities and Problems of Modern Russian Society Development"

Presented are contributions made by participants of Conference organized in the framework of program "Interregional Studies in Social Sciences", which was held in St. Petersburg State University on 18-20 December 2002.

NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES Semash A. Naomi Klein. No Logo.


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