SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION
Interview with Professor Ulrich Beck
Professor Ulrich Beck answers questions of JSSA editor V. Kozlovsky concerning his scientific career and his various works on social issues in a global world. A selected bibliography of Professor Beck's works is appended.
Beck U. The Cosmopolitan Society and its Enemies
At the beginning of the 21 century the conditio humana cannot be understood nationally or locally but only globally. This constitutes a revolution in the social sciences. The "sociological imagination" (C. Wright Mills) so far has been basically a nation state imagination. The main problem is how to redefine the sociological frame of reference in the horizon of a cosmopolitan imagination. For the purpose of empirical research I distinguish between three concepts: interconnectedness (David Held et al.), liquid modernity (Zygmunt Bauman) and cosmopolitisation from within. The latter is a kind of class analysis after class analysis, which takes on board globalization internalised. For the purpose of social analysis, therefore, it is necessary to distinguish systematically between the national manifestation on the one hand and cosmopolitan reality of "global flows", currents of information, symbols, money, risks, people, social inequalities on the other hand. This internal involuntary and often unseen cosmopolitanisation from below of the national sphere of experience is occurring, however, with the power of economic globalization. So what does inner "cosmopolitisation" mean? The key concepts and questions of a way of life, such as nourishment, production, identity, fear, memory, pleasure, fate, power, politics can no longer be located and understood nationally, but only globally- whether in the shape of globally shared collective futures, capital flows, impending ecological or economic catastrophes, global foodstuff chains, transnational power games or the "Esperanto" of pop music. In this article I look at transformations in the understanding of space-time, of identity, of the production paradigm as well as at the resulting consequences for key sociological concepts like class and power and, within this frame, point to certain dilemmas of cosmopolitanism. In this article I want to discuss three questions: (1) What is a cosmopolitan sociology? (2) What is a cosmopolitan society? (3) Who are the enemies of cosmopolitan societies?
CLASSICS OF RUSSIAN SOCIOLOGY
Bochkareva V. M .N. Gernet on Capital Punishment
M. Gernet is one of the leading figures of the "sociology school" in the criminal law. The introductory article deals with the development of M. Gernet's view on the problem of capital punishment.
Gernet M. The General Assessment of Capital Punishment
A republication of the last chapter of M. Gernet's book "The Capital Punishment" (Moscow, 1913).
CRIME AND PUNISHMENT: A SOCIAL CRITIQUE
Golbert V. Some Considerations Concerning a Good War against Crime and a Bad Social Peace
The subject of the paper is the general discourse on crime and crime control. Now, the main trend of this discourse in its Russian, as well as European and North American versions, can be considered as a rapid development of hysterical public sentiments, punitive attitudes and approaches, irrational public requests for punishing criminals and systemic-rational penal populism of governments and law-enforcement-andcarceral complexes. This development could not be justified by any real increase of a "real crime", while being rather an organic component of the current marketization of society and its political subsystem according to the neoliberal market fundamentalism, which is the hegemonic ideology and the most dangerous challenge to democracy, rule of law and social justice in the contemporary world; the basic factor of both criminogenic processes and totalitarian-repressive tendencies of governmental activities; of state terror as well as subversive terrorism. In the paper, the neoliberal-conservative approach in crime control policy is sharply critisized. A radical narrowing the area of application of penal practice is suggested as the most urgent and effective remedy to the problem of crime and public safety.
CONFLICTOLOGY OF RUSSIAN SOCIETY
Nikovskaja L., Yakimetz V. From Conflict to the Intersectoral Interaction
The concept of the intersectoral social partnership aimed at designing and
operationalizing constructive interactions of organizations from two or three sectors
(state, business, NGOs) in social sphere is considered. It is shown that the
conflictological paradigm used for describing intersectoral partnership leads to
The term "protoconflict" is introduced. A typology of protoconflicts, which are immanently reproduced in a process of developing workable schemes of interactions is suggested. Some aspects of the protoconflict institutionalization are discussed.
NETWORK RESOURCES: A SOCIOLOGICAL VIEW
Holtgrewe U., Werle R. De-commodifying software? Open Source Software between business strategy, participatory engineering and social movement
The history of IT though passes before our eyes, but is actually badly documented on a paper, is deformed by predilections of commercial, political and sociocultural interests, positions and secrets. The authors aspire to present an objective picture of the antagonism of open and commercially closed software at all levels, with participation of all basic driving forces and in various prospects: Microsoft and its opponents; the innovators, businessmen, followers and users; social groups and movements, corporate and institutional structures, governmental and interstate bodies, decisions, acts and policy; sociocultural conditions, meaning and consequences; economic, sociological, technological, moral and historical optics. The contradictions, described in the article, are updated daily in the media, Internet and new products. The history is the daily fact of the present and derivates our future.
ANTHROPOLOGY OF PROFESSIONS
Shepanskaya T. The Anthropology of Professions
On the basis of ethnographic research of a number of professional traditions (doctors, teachers, actors, ethnographers, archaeologists, geologists, traders etc.) the comparative analysis of their informal discourses ("lores": stories, jokes, mystical beliefs, signs, rituals, rules of the daily interactions) is carried out. The typical plots and motives, common for different professional communities are considered. This paper presents the analysis of the texts simulating the "professional - object of activity" relations. In the analysis there were found out discoursive means of cultural designing of these relations as communicative ones, and professional activity as a communication. The texts designing object as a virtual partner of the communication are examined. Though in a role of object there can be an impersonal community (auditorium, set of the buyers, school class), inanimate subject (minerals, road) or natural phenomenon (sky, sea), in professional folklore it might receive the characteristics of a personal essence: a personal name, vitality (soul, breath, emotional condition) etc., - ensuring an opportunity to build with it (him) relations as with the partner in communication. The continuation of research devoted to the means of cultural designing of the relations in professional community is supposed.
Zaytzeva N. The Ethnographic Observations in Lensovet Theatre
This material gives a brief description of the actor's professional tradition concentrating on legends, stories, jokes, mystical beliefs, symbols, rituals, and rules of everyday interactions.
Fedoseenko S. An Informal Factor in the Professional Milieu of Field-Geologists
This material presents the results of the research of professional environment of field-geologists. The author considers such aspects as a correlation between formal and informal factors in professional environment, the role of professional folklore as a transmitter of behavior norms and professional stereotypes, and as a manifestation of in-group hierarchy.
Vatolina Y., Semenkov V. Walter Benjamin: the Specificity of Observation
This essay explores Walter Benjamin?s method of observation exemplitied in his "Moscow Diary" (1927).
CURRICULA AND TEACHING
Zborovsky G. Sociology in the Structure of the Modern Education
The article touches upon the main ideas of the report named "Prospects for teaching sociology in the high school" made at All-Russia conference. The author argues that sociology has to become a discipline of an important practical need for the vast majority of the future specialists to occupy a decent place in the educational system. That is why sociology has to include not only theoretical, but also a practical aspect, represented as a special module which has to depend on a student's major speciality.
NEWS / INFORMATION
First Readings on the History of Russian Sociology
The First Readings on the History of Russian sociology dedicated to the memory of Igor Golosenko were held at the Faculty of Sociology of St. Petersburg State University on 13-14 December 2002.
NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Rozov N. et al. The Elaboration and Approbation of Theoretical History Method. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2001. 503 P.
Koposov N. How Historians Think. M: Novoye Literaturnoye Obozreniye, 2001. 236 P.
Shuchenko V. The Eternal Present Time of Culture. Theoretical Problems of a Historical and Cultural Process / Ed. by I. Golosenko/ St. Petersburg: Sociological Institute RAN, 2001.