SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION
Interview with Professor Thomas Luckmann
Professor Thomas Luckmann answers questions of Elena Zdravomyslova about his life, scientific career and talks about the impressions of his stay in St. Petersburg. A selected bibliography of Professor Luckmann´s works is appended.
CLASSICS OF RUSSIAN SOCIOLOGY
Golosenko I. "Social-Organic ?h??r?" of D. Dril and its Place in the History of Russian Sociology
This article gives an overview of life and works of D. Dril (1848-1910) — the founder of Russian "criminal-anthropological" school. The bibliography of Dril´s monographic works is appended.
Dril D. Criminal Sociology
A republication of fragments of two works by D. Dril: "Criminality and criminals" (St. Petersburg, 1895)and "Vagrancy and beggingand means to struggle with them" (St. Petersburg, 1899).
Kaiser M. Eurasia: a Societal Reality or a Myth?
Classical Eurasiauism which defined the essential character of Russian identity in terms of its imputed distinctions from the civilization of the West is the core of a newly emerging debate of the geopolitics of Russia. The question arises whether Eurasia today is a societal reality or a political myth.
The paper discusses the different use of the imaginary by external actors as international organizations, scientific institutions etc. and internal actors as politicians. Movements of migrants, the economic activity of cross-border shuttle traders are linking Europe and Asia. Semantic and virtual linkages are described to add to the political myth a societal base shaping the culture(s) of this vast landmass to a not insignificant extent by influences coming from Asia and Europe. People, goods and knowledge are the essence of a sociocultural integration of this geocultural space. A Eurasia beyond national borders appears to be in the making.
ETHNOSOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION
Amelin V. Ethnoconfessional Relations as Assessed and Interpreted in the Mass Consciousness of the Orenburg Region Inhabitants
The paper deals with the materials of sociological studies connected with the problems of ethnoconfessional relations and their interpretation in the mass consciousness of the inhabitants of the Orenburg region. The ethnic factor is of special significance in the regions with multiethnic and polyconfessional population. The dynamics of the processes occurring in the realm of ethnic consciousness and ethnoconfessional interrelations of the people of the frontier region is described. Civil identification is dominant in the consciousness of Orenburg dwellers being one of the factors of international stability in the region.
At the same time certain tension in the interethnic relations between the people of the Orenburg region has been growing in recent years. The amount of cases of hostile relations between people of different nationalities has been increasing.
Religion and interconfessional relations in Orenburg region are becoming those factors that specifically influence various spheres of social interactions.
The actuality and the growing influence of the ethnic factor on the sociopolitical life of the region are accentuated in the article.
Karmadonov O. Some Features of American Religiosity: An Attempt at Sociological Analysis
The relationships in ecclesiastical sphere are a kind and significant part of the public relations in general. They are acting through the different social interactions on the all possible levels, from the connections between the average people till the contacts among the leaders of denominations and confessions. At the same time, ecclesiastical relationship has rather specific features. Undoubtedly, this kind of public relations is very important throughout the history of mankind, and it has not lost its significance nowadays. Moreover, the recent and the current conflicts with religious background (former Soviet Union, former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Northern Ireland, etc.) tell us about the increasing role of religious factor in modern world. Mankind should find the way how to live in harmony in the modern pluralistic world, thus, an experience of certain parts of this world, of certain nations where such a harmony has been acquired (relatively, at least) ought to be studied rather thoroughly. I am inclined to think that the United States´ experience in this sphere is just an example of this kind.
At the same time we should point out that the evolution of religious environment here has brought about different and rather hard contradictions in this sphere of public life as well as in American society in general. Such as a contradiction between freedom for all and traditional religious values, what appears as a necessity to protect the rights of different social minorities (including sexual ones) and, from the other hand, to esteem an aspiration to save the norms (commandments) of the human relations according to the Scriptures.
The article contains the analysis of interrelations among the religious communities, government, and the public in the United States, establishing the ethnic and racial connotations of such interrelations, and analysis of the participants´ images as they are represented in the newspapers, and mass opinion.
THE PREVENTION OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR
Keselman L., Matskevich M. Blind Opposition to Drugs has no Effect
Mainly young generations, grown up over the last 10-15 years, are familiar with illicit drugs, while older people mostly are not. The actual prevalence rate is more determined by young people´s values than by tactical achievements of law enforcement bodies, which are now at the center of all drug policy activities. 80% of the actual regular drug users started using drugs before they were 17. To protect Russian society against both drugs and drug addiction, there is a need to concentrate all available means within a relatively narrow social space. The society should make every effort so that young males aged 14—17 would be less prone to drugs. The society might close a main breach through which drugs nenetrate inside by protecting that relatively small social group against early start of drug use. A service to monitor the drug use among young people would become a necessary part of such protection, in order to get reliable data on the real prevalence rate and trends in using drugs.
Shipunova T. The Juvenile Crime and Preventive Strategies
In the article the problems related to the explanation of genesis of juvenile crime and possibilities of nonrepression preventive politics are considered. The author in oblate and lapidary form describes the following questions: characteristics of before crime and criminal juvenile misbehavior; causes of juvenile crime which are described in different criminological theories; models of the person of a criminal as they are set in a history of development of criminology, etc. The emphasis is laid on the world experience of prevention of juvenile crime, design of strategy and tactics, which determine measures within primary and follow-up crime.
RESEARCH METHODS IN SOCIOLOGY
Saganenko G. Signs of Social Time in Empirical Sociology
Lots of methodologists´ efforts in sociology are directed to describing the strong logic of empirical research and a number of methods — methods of sampling, collecting, measuring and analyzing data. However, in order to realize the sense of empirical research knowledge in sociology, a full collection of significant "participants" of the investigative "enterprise" should be taken into consideration. Among them there are "social reality", "sociology", "the social problem", "the investigative problem", "the researcher", "instrument", "respondents", "money", etc. TIME is also a significant "research participant" with several roles.
Specific effects of SOCIAL TIME on research will be illustrated by collisions mostly being taken in Russia and Russian sociology (chronological and physical aspects of time in research will be only mentioned). Here are some examples: appearance of multiplicity of new social collision and disappearance of others as a subject of research, opportunity for the researcher´s independence from an institution´s administration, financial support of foundations to carry up a needed research, etc.
Tsvetaeva N. Practices and Values in the Time of Change. (The Analysis of the Biographical Materials of the contest "?? Live in the Time of Change")
The article presents some results of the analysis of the biographical materials of the contest "?? Live in the Time of Change", conducted by the socio-cultural changes department of the Sociological Institute of Russian Academy of Science in autumn 2000 among the Saint-Petersburg citizens. Using the life stories of the contest participants the article analyses, how people adapt to change going on during the last decade and how they assess this process.
Rusinova N., Panova L. Access to Health Care: Methodological Approaches and Basic Measures
A problem of accessibility of medical services for population takes a special place in a present discussion on such topics as a crisis in Russian medical services system and possible ways to reform this system. The most disturbing is the fad that, though this sphere of public life suffers from non-sufficient financing which is non-adequate to social guarantees on medical services, an access to medical care depends on patient´s direct additional payments. It is not surprising that under given circumstances Russian researchers concentrate at investigation of economic possibilities of population to receive health care services. Meanwhile, according to research experience in many countries, the problem of medical services accessibility is not restricted within boundaries of economic analysis, but also requires employing theoretical approaches from the other social disciplines.
While Russian scholars do not have their own tradition of complex investigations of medical care system accessibility, Western researchers have a long history of such studies and have developed interesting conceptual approaches and reliable methodological tools that help to work in this field. We analyze this Western experience in our article.
Ledyajev V., Ledyajeva O. Reputational Method in Community Power Studies
This article is about reputational method in the study of power. Examination of the method is made through the discussion of several major problems: methodological, conceptual and theoretical substantiation of the method, its heuristic potential and validity, difficulties in the application and possible refinements. Reputational method is compared with positional and decisional methods in community power studies and the main arguments in the debates over the methods reviewed. It is concluded that reputational technique can and should be applied in the studies of power in Russian communities and on national level in combination with other methods.
CURRICULA AND TEACHING
Kozlovsky V. Federal Centre for Advanced Education — "Sociology"
The Federal Centre for Advanced Education — "Sociology" was founded in 2002 within the framework of the National Trainings Fond Programme. The goal of the project is to provide advanced post-graduate education in the field of sociology.
The St. Petersburg Seminar "Siberia and Siberian Mentality"
Presented are contributions made by participants of the seminar held 25 April 2002 at the Faculty of Sociology of St. Petersburg State University.
NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Mazalova N. "Corpus Humani": The Traditional Somatic Representations of Man in Russian Culture. St. Petersburg: Peterburgskoje Vostokovedenije, 2001.
Golofast V. The Reality of the Social (Emmanuel Levinas against Ontologism)
In Memoriam. Professor V. Lisovsky