THE JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

2000, volume III,
issue 2.


Abstracts

HISTORY OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Timasheff N.S. Sociology

N.S. Timasheff wrote this article for The Catholic Encyclopedia in 1950. Timasheff offers his definition of sociology, considers its subject with relation to other social sciences, gives a survey of general theoretical sociology, describes the contribution of the four most influential scholars active from 1912 (V. Pareto, M. Weber, W. I. Thomas, P. Sorokin) and sketches the formation of the main sociological schools.

Timasheff N.S. Where is the American Sociology of Law Going?

This paper which is the report for the Congress of American Sociological Association (September 1965, Chicago) outlines the field of the American sociology of law, traces its recent developments and suggests some means of straightening out the advance of this discipline.

Bobrinskaja N. Notes about my Father

In her very personal account Timasheff's daughter gives the portrait of this outstanding scholar, tells about his life, work and spiritual legacy which as she hopes would eventually come back to his beloved mother country.

Scheuer J. N.S. Timasheff on the Future of Russia

The article written by Timasheff's disciple explores the little known but important theme of his writings: notes about Russia. Timasheff considered Russia to be the part of Europe and was one of the first to speak about the renewal of Russia free from communist power. His thoughts about the new future for the country often take the legal form (e. g. in 20s he develops the principles of its new Constitution). At different time his attention was attracted to the problems of political power and official soviet ideology, aggression and possibilites of the world war.

Golosenko I. Nicholas Timasheff as a Historian of Sociology.

The article explores one of the most fundamental among Timasheff's works, “Sociological theory, its nature and growth”, in which he critically analyses the theories of many social thinkers of past and present. The conceptual scheme of this classic book which is still very useful nowadays includes the tracing of interdisciplinary borders between social sciences, classification of schools and directions in sociology, and the attempt of their theoretical integration.

THEORETICAL PROBLEMS OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Evers H.-D., Schrader H. From Traders' to Bureaucrats' Dilemma: the Theory of Social Transition from Moral to Market Society

“The traders' dilemma” originally refers to a situation of transformation from a peasant society into a market society. The former type of society is characterized by close spheres of solidarity, mutual obligations and constraints of individual economic action. This has have been called “moral economy” (Scott). Market societies in turn have been described as constituted by economizing individuals, freed from all social constraints and aiming at their personal benefits in the market. The transformation process turns peasant societies into market societies. Traders, intermediaries between moral economy and market economy, are faced by a dilemma situations of expectations of fair prices by the peasants and economic necessities by the market, which cause them to look for solutions to this ambivalent situation. The first part of the paper discusses the framework of moral economy and solutions to this dilemma situation that turned out to be reality. The second part is concerned with the question of whether the “traders' dilemma” disappears in modern societies. The authors deny this. However, the dilemma gets a new dimension in so far, that it is now one of the modern state and its bureaucracy.

Kuropjatnik A. Multiculturalism: Ideology and Politics of the Social Stability in the Polyethnic Societies

The article explores the notions of multiculturalism and polyethnicity in their relation to modern societies. Multiculturalism is defined as a special form of integrative ideology in the polyethnic states which helps to realize the strategies of social consensus and stability on the principles of equal coexistence of the different forms of cultural life. Pointing to the three levels of understanding of multiculturalism in the social sciences — demographic and descriptive, ideological, and political, author traces the history of this ideology in various countries, including Canada, Australia, United States, Great Britain and Germany.

SOCIOLOGY OF POWER AND LAW

Bachinin V. The Anthropocriminology of Dostojevski: Criminal Types

Dostojevski's work is analysed in order to delineate the main types of characters with a criminal career. Using Dostojevski's own metaphors, the author characterizes the anthroposociological types of criminals such as “man as a demon”, “man as a machine”, “man as an instrument”, “man as a beast”, and “man as a spider”. These literary models could be used as the “ideal types” with criminally oriented anthropological features. They all have one thing in common. Dostojevski defined it as the universal property of human nature: to be unsatisfied with the social existence in the realm of ordered normativity and to thirst sometimes for the destruction and chaos.

Shipunova T. The Problem of Aggression and Violence in the German Criminology

The article presents the main approaches to the study of aggression and violence in the German criminology and social psychology. The author analyses the definitions of these phenomena in various discourses and considers their study in the process of social interaction. The special attention is paid to juvenile violence and aggression in relation to the modernization and disorganization theory.

SOCIOLOGY OF WORK

Maximov B. Labour Organizations as the Subjects of Social Life: the Dynamics of Transformation

The article looks at labour organizations as the subjects of social life, especially in the welfare sector. At the beginning of Perestroika the labour collectives could be characterized by self-management movement, increasing political activity which gradually goes down in the period of privatization. However, even in the conditions of economic crisis Russian enterprises have preserved their former functions and became the independent subjects of not only economic but also social policy.

RESEARCH

Kaiser M. Informal Sector Trade in Uzbekistan

The newly developed international informal sector trade in Uzbekistan is analysed within a framework of bottom-up transformation. Traders are transformers in their own right and are described as tracers for how things are changing. The role of personal networks in the second economy and informal economy are described. During the transformation from Communism to post-Communism the network structures of the second economy have been transformed into opportunity structures of networking in Uzbekistan's informal sector.

Golod S. Russian Sexual Standards and their Transformation (second half of the XXth century)

The empirical material collected by author reflects the mosaic picture of erotic and sexual interaction between men and women in the last 30 — 40 years that allows him to construct five basic sexual standards (models) and to study their transformation.

CURRICULA AND TEACHING

Firsov B. How the Course on the History of 1950s-80s Soviet Sociology Was Developed (A Story of Documents)

Fifteen letters of widely known Russian and western sociologists are published, who gave their positive reply to the author's request to express their opinion on the content and structure of a course addressed to the post-Soviet generation of young scholars — postgraduate students at the European University at St.-Petersburg. This initiative can be regarded as a new social-and-educational practice. This article contains the course' curriculum developed with the consideration of experts' viewpoints. For the first time the course was delivered in March—April 2000.

Bochkareva V. The Development of the Sociology of Law in Russia (second half of the XlXth-the beginning of XXth century)

This course is the attempt to reconstruct the history of the sociology of law in Russia. It deals with the works of the leading scholars in the field: S. Muromtsev, N. Korkunov, P. Novgorodtsev, M. Kovalevski, L. Petrazhitski, and P. Sorokin.

The course program is presented.

NEWS / INFORMATION

Social History of Russia. Interview with Prof. Boris Mironov

Boris Mironov answers questions of M. Rabzhajeva concerning his recent book “Social history of Russia” and his scientific career.

REVIEW

Saganenko G. Global Introduction into Sociology

Reviewed is John J. Macionis' and Ken Plummer's book “Sociology: a Global introduction”.

Semenkov V., IvanovA. “Sociology of Culture” by L. Michailova: the Attempt to be Correct

Reviewed is L. Michailova's textbook “Sociology of culture”.

Semenov V. A New Textbook on Ethnology

Reviewed is A. Sadokhin's textbook “Ethnology”.


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