THE JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

2000, volume III,
issue 1.


Abstracts

EDITOR'S PREFACE

V. Kozlovsky. Justification of the Sociological Judgement

This article discusses some paradoxes and collisions of sociology. They determine the inner development of modern social knowledge and also show how do social sciences influence the actual social processes. The Russian sociology is characterized by the following paradoxes:

  1. epistemological paradox — a disproportion between the increase of social knowledge and the decrease of its heuristic potential;
  2. gradually increasing autonomization and even isolation of the sociological conceptions;
  3. dilemma of sociological constructivism consisting in a conflict between the reality constructed by sociologists and the actual social world;
  4. paradox of differentiated sociological competence, i.e. a growing division of labour within sociology. This paradox is an indicator of the confrontation between the social knowledge and social prescriptions;
  5. paradox of convertibility of the sociological text into a real educational practice, policy, economy, social realm, i.e. a divergence of the sociological text and context.

SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION

Interview with Prof. Igor Kon

Igor Kon answers questions of the JSSA editor V. Kozlovsky concerning his biography, scientific career, and problems of sociology's development in St. Petersburg.

HISTORY OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Golosenko I., Gergilov R. Georgij (Georges) Gurvitch as Sociologist

This brief essay about life and works of Georges Gurvitch, who according to Pitirim Sorokin is the founder of “one of the most original and important sociological systems of our time”, examines the main parts of his “hyperempiricist dialectical” sociology, treats the main points of his rather uncommon biography, and describes his prominent activity for the institutionalization of sociology in the first half of 20th century. The subject of sociology, in Gurvitch's view, is phenomena sui generis and it has to describe their main attributes and correlations. To study these aspects sociology uses quantitative and qualitative methods as well as dialectical method. Gurvitch divides his sociology into macro and microsociology. The article prepares the reader for the publication of one of his early pieces “The future of democracy” (1927).

Gurvitch G. The Future of Democracy

For the first time Georges Gurvitch's article was published in the journal “Sovremennyje zapiski” in Paris in 1927.The question “What is the future of democracy?” means for him “What is the essence of democracy?”. Defining democracy as a complex synthesis, “moving equilibrium” between the idea of freedom and equality, the author considers the principle of equality, which is the combination of individualism and universality, and the principle of freedom, which solves the problem of the whole in its relation to the particular. He stresses that problems of equality and freedom have legal and ethical dimensions, but the most important is the connection between democracy and law: its difference from the other forms of organizations lies in the fact that the structure of power is inseparable from the submission of that power to the law. The future of democracy is in its multidimensional and universal character.

SOCIOLOGY OF POWER

Khomeleva R. Towards the Construction of an Ontological Concept of Power: Theoretical and Methodological Approach

This paper proposes a conceptual scheme and methodology for a comprehensive study of the ontological foundations of power. In the author's opinion, the ontological status of power manifests itself in the unity of its material, psychological and spiritual foundations. As the identification of the phenomenon of power is derived from a variety of forms of human practice and sociocultural experience, the construction of an ontological concept of power suggests utilization of a system method and three modern research paradigms, namely market, technocratic and sociocultural paradigms. The author proposes her own approach to theoretical modelling of the so-called “associative patterns of power”, which have an important scientific and practical meaning for understanding characteristics of psychological perception of the phenomenon of power by mass conscience.

Duka A. Prospects for the Sociological Study of Power Elites

Using the cultural and institutional approach, this article explores the notion of power elites. Elite is defined as a historically determined form (the other being aristocracy and nomenklatura) of the power groups, which imposes the institutional boundaries. Considering elite to be a social institution and posing the problem of institutionalization, author examines its role in the process of social change. The particular attention is paid to the problem of elite's discourse.

Bystrova A., Silvestros M. Phenomen of Corruption: Some Research Approaches

The article looks at the possibility of the sociological study of corruption. The revival of this problem in Russia is closely associated with perestroika and political and economic reforms of the 1990s. Pointing to the fact that there is a great shortage of sociological publications on this subject, authors analyze various definitions and classifications of corruption, trace its history, and outline several approaches to its study. The conditions of corruption are the power monopoly of officials in some spheres, the great room of action of power representatives, and lack of control of their activity. In Russia corruption follows the coming of new elites when, for example, its representatives hold more than one office in government bodies and business enterprises.

Kolesnik N. Financial Elite in the Russian Provinces

The aim of the present article is to test of the process of the provincial elite social interaction. The author presents Komi Republic as a separate region, represents one of the Russian models of development and transformation of economic elite structures. Studies held by the author within the framework of several projects are the empirical base of the article.

Theoretical Problems of Sociology and Social Anthropology

Bocharov V. Anthropology and Society

The essay tries to determine the main object of research and the main methods of the modern social anthropology. It argues that anthropology studies the “periphery” of the sociocultural process, in which the thick strata of archaic relations are preserved. This periphery appears:

  1. As a result of asynchrony of the world sociocultural process (developing countries can be considered as such periphery).
  2. The culture is more conservative than society and by that reason culture can be regarded as a periphery of the society comprising such archaic relations.
  3. Being isolated from the main Society, such subcultures as criminal, military, etc. can be regarded as its periphery. These subcultures reproduce the archaic modes of human relations too.

Research

Kleineberg M. Non-profit Organizations within Russia's Welfare Sector

The article describes the main conditions and strategies of non-profit organizations (NPOs) in becoming an established element within the welfare system of Russia’s transformative society. It introduced NPOs as a specific type of intermediary organizations, thus turning the focus of interest to the interplay of environmental factors and organizational strategies within a wider context of sociohistorical conditions. Given the principally polyfunctional character of NPOs, its main concern was to determine the specific direction NPOs in Russia are currently moving in.

Kokorev A., Nikolukina N. The Social Portrait of a Higher School Professor

Curricula and Teaching

Schrader H., Tavrovski A., Economic Anthropology: Course Outline and Program.

News / Information

Berthelot J. -M. Discourse on the Occasion of Presentation of the Special Issue of JSSA “Contemporary French Sociology”

Code of Ethics of American Anthropological Association

Bystrova A. 10 Years of St. Petersburg Branch of the Institute of Sociology of Russian Academy of Sciences

Shpakova R. Conference “The Role of Fundamental Sociological Research in Humanitarian Education and the Rise of Civil Society”

Pavenkova M. Conference “Social Communications and Information: Research, Education and Practice”

Review

Pogodin S. Review of the B.N. Chicherin's Book “Philosophy of Law”

Jarskaja-Smirnova E. Russianness as Diagnosis


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