THE JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

1999, volume II,
issue 4.


Abstracts

Interview with Dr. Boris Firsov

Boris Firsov, the lecturer of European University in St. Petersburg, answers questions of the JSSA editor V. Kozlovski concerning his biography, scientific career, and problems of sociology’s development in St. Petersburg.

Hartmann Tyrell. Intellectual Religiosity, Meanings of “Sinn”, Brotherhood’ Ethics — Max Weber and his Relation to Tolstoi and Dostojevski

The article demonstrates that Max Weber was strongly impressed by Tolstoi and Dostojevski; the result of that can identified in his sociology of religion (“Religionssoziologie”). The article stresses three topics — at first the problem of religious intellectualism and Tolstoi and Dostoevski as religious intellectuals. The second topic is “Sinn” in the sense of “meaning of life” etc.; this term or concept — central in Weber’s sociology of religion and closely with the problem of theodicy e. g. — is a (Russian and German) neologism, stemming from the later nineteenth century, and one of it’s creators was Leo Tolstoi. The third topic is “brotherhood”, Max Weber’s “religioese Bruederlichkeitsethik”, prominently discussed in his famous “Zwischenbetrachtung”; it is just here that russian influences, especially that of Dostojevski can be demonstrated.

Aleksei Malinov, Sergei Pogodin. Sociology in the works by A. S. Lappo-Danilevskiy

The article is dedicated to A. S. Lappo-Danilevskiy’s historical works. Being an adept of positivistic philosophy, he included sociological problems in analysis. In this article his main sociological ideas are considered.

Rudolf Maresch. Dietmar Kamper: a Portrait of Marginal Philosopher and Outsider

The article is dedicated to intellectual biography of Dietmar Kamper, a german specialist in historical anthropology. His analysis of human nature integrates all leftist and postmodernist tendencies in philosophy, sociology, and anthropology.

Yuri Davydov. Where has Russia come to? Part II: Two Ways of the Capitalism Evolution

The article is the second part (the first one in the JSSA 1999, N1) of the analysis of the current Russian reforms. Russian economic and social order is qualified as the archaic capitalism. It is considered rather as specific historical and cultural type (in terms of M. Weber) then as an initial phase or underdeveloped form of modern industrial capitalism. Following Nikolai Kondratiev, the author distinguishes two forms of economic and social dynamics — cyclical and irreversible ones. The economic and social trends in Russia are defined as a regressive evolution associated with the archaic capitalism.

 

Alexander Kuteinikov. International governmental organizations: the sociological approach

Although International governmental organizations (IGO) are organizations established by agreements to which three states or more are parties, the sociology is not used systematically as a scientific method for their studies. The article outlines some ways of the researchers in this direction. Composition, structure, functions, bodies, personnel of the IGOs can be analysed from the point of view of the sociology.

Margarita Rosenko. Nations in Modern Society: Theoretical-Methodological Analysis

The results of the analysis of literature on national problems, recently published in Russia, are the evidence of two methodological tendencies. While the proponents of the first tendency (A. I. Doronchenkov, M. N. Rutkevich, V. I. Kozlov, and others) suppose an objective existence of nations, the second one (V.Tishkov, A.Zdravomislov, and others) is based on the definition of nations through people’s self-consciousness. This constructivist — postmodernist conception is considered as inadequate to social and economic conditions in Russia. The author insists that the settlement of the national problems in Russia is possible only as a result of the analysis of objective national processes based on the dialectical materialistic methodology in its modern form.

Airat Zaripov. General Problems of Ethnogenesis and Scientific Theory

The article deals with the problems of ethnogenesis and the formation of ethnos as a system, the consciousness influence upon the whole process of anthropogenesis. The consciousness has a great part in theoretical systems of the materialism and idealism. But the first of them, recognizing the role of consciousness at the same time underestimates its part in the process of anthropogenesis; the second one recognizing the priority of the consciousness does not allow it to go outside the given program. On the basis of new discoveries the author suggests to consider the consciousness as one of active and determinant in the processes of anthropogenesis and ethnogenesis. Analysing the process of ethnogenesis, the author suggests his own version of ethnics formation. It is supposed to be an result of the consciousness evolution but with new principles and requirements of the social organization.

Pavel Romanov. Social Anthropology of Organizations: History, Epistemology, and Methodological Principles

In this paper discussed are the main stages of the development of methodology, epistemology, interpretative strategy and theoretical approaches of the social anthropology of organizations. From the innovative methods of Houthorn project through Manchester researches to the contemporary explorations of organizational culture, work and profession this discipline gradually shifted from the standards of positivistic “severity” to the problematization of modern organizations. The methodology elaborated in the analysis of remote communities and applied to researches of industrial and postindustrial enterprises in the modern societies, creates the context for social criticism, gives an additional resource to public changes, that is especially significant for the countries in transition.

Asp E., Uhmavaara. Factors That Should Influence Salary

The article reflects the international research project where consideration was given to those factors which influence the payments system. The concept of work demands with its different dimensions has been a theoretical starting point to this research. The factor analysis made on the basis of the nine items gives three factors: 1) demographic and social background; 2) effectiveness and responsibility; 3) education. The influence of these factors was tested on the questionaries data from the Finnish Nokia and Masa-Yards enterprises.

Galina Eremicheva, Yussi Simpura. Distrust as a Social Problem in Russian Society

The article analyses the phenomenon of trust/distrust among Russian people as a problem of political order and everyday life. On the base of constructionist approach to the social problems the authors examine empirical data collected in St. Petersburg in 1993–96.

Dayksel A., A. Postler. Russian Brands: Analysis of the Current Russian Branded Goods in the Frame of Gestalt-Sociology

The authors present sociological analysis of brand which is considered to be a ‘Gestalt’ system. Elements of such system are goods, market agents, communications, distribution, and management. The market agents interlinked through the brand are integrated into ‘social body’. The rise of the branded goods market in current Russia and development of specifically Russian brands are interpreted as ‘Gestalt’ systems formation.

Yakovlev I. Review of Recent Manuals of Sociology

The review treats 4 new manuals of sociology addressed to the students of the humanities and social sciences. The manuals concerned represent the different approaches in sociology (system theory, tetralist theory) strongly reflecting the authors points of view.

Smirnov P. Notes on G.Tozchenko‘s “Sociology. General Course”.

The notes include not only the analysis of merits and shortcomings of the manual reviewed but reflections about the sociological education in modern Russia as well.

Alexander Kuropjatnik, Marina Kuropjatnik. Saami minority: Trends of the ethnopolitical and legal development

The aim of the article is to analyse the present situation of Saami minority in four nation-states (Finland, Norway, Russia and Sweden) from perspective of standards settled by international law concerning ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples. The authors try to give a comparative focus to minority relationship and ethnicity constructing processes. Special subject is the Saami ethnopolitical movement and new opportunities and new dilemmas it creates for self-consciousness and cultural and political innovation. Considered are the relations between Saami ethnic identity and ethnopolitical movement.

Kostyukovsky Y. Criminality and Criminology at the Close of the Century

The 28–30 june 1999 in Saint-Petersburg was held the XII International Baltic criminological seminar “Criminality and Criminology at the Close of the Century”. The research of organized criminality, traffic of the drugs, suicides, penitentiary system, criminal law, etc. demonstrated the different points of view concerning the methods of the socio-criminological research and provoked the lively discussion.

Alexander Gerasimov, Alexander Kuteinikov. International organizations: the subject with good prospects for the researchers in St Petersburg

Sins 1997 the seminar “Theory and Practice of International Organizations Functioning” have organized eleven workshops and have elaborated a curriculum on International Organizations for the students of the Universities. This seminar is the non-governmental organization pursuing the objective to promote the study of International Organizations in Russia. This article is the survey of the tree conferences conducted in the framework of the seminar: “Sociology of the international relations”, “Sociology and history of the international relations”, “The International Organizations and the military aspects of the European integration”.

Kritskaya Z. The First Coursebook of International Organizations in St. Petersburg

“International Organizations: theory and practice of activity”, by N.Lomagin, is the first textbook on this subject issued in Saint-Petersburg. The author makes use of sociological approach to study international organizations and tries to make students regard and understand its’ activities in a world context.

Lovtsova N.P. Romanov‘s “Social Anthropology of Organizations”

The manual analyses the theoretical sources and modern directions of anthropological research in organizations. The author traces the history of anthropology of organizations, takes into consideration the different approaches which exist in this sphere and proposes the fruitfull program of practical anthropological research.


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