THE JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

1999, volume II,
issue 2.


Abstracts

The Round Table "Sociology in St. Petersburg"

Leading sociologists of St. Petersburg discuss development and institutionalization of sociology as the scientific and educational discipline during last decades in Russia and especially in St. Petersburg.

A. Boronoev. Faculty of Sociology: The First Decade of Development

The author, the dean of the first in St. Petersburg faculty of sociology, tells about history of this institution and analyses contribution of the professional sociological training into growth both of social knowledge and society's culture.

B. Johnston. Existential Phenomenology and the Sociology of Pitirim Sorokin

The article is dedicated to the problem of conceptual and methodological convergence of sociological theory and existential phenomenology. The Sorokin's methodological position and his models of societal order and change are analyzed in Husserlian terms, and phenomenological character of the Sorokin's sociology is demonstrated. The author insists that the 'subjective realism' inspired by the existential phenomenology is the most productive orientation in sociological theory development.

R. Shpakova. The Dice, or Tomorrow Was Yesterday?

In the article are main features, ideological characteristics and currents of sociological thought of the recent period in the modern Russia analyzed. The multiplicity of its classifications denotes chaotic situation and an uncritical repetition by the scholars of the modern Western sociology. The author considers classical sociological inheritance, especially Max Weber's concepts, and its role in the modern advance of social sciences. Finally some offers for the future dynamics of the Russian sociology are given.

Y. Veselov. Economic Sociology in Russia: History and Current Developments

The article deals with the development of the economic sociology in Russia from the 1890s to our times. Analyzed are historic background, current discussions of subject and method of the economic sociology, and the process of its institutionalization.

Z. Sikevitch. Relations between the Ethnic and Social

The ethnicity is analyzed as a form of identification and factor of social solidarity and differentiation. The author claims importance of ethnicity for the social stratification and political mobilization in the period of society's transformations.

V. Kelasiev. Social Protection of People and Power

The article is dedicated to problems of the social work development in today's Russia. In the situation of the dramatic decline of the living standards the main direction of the social work has to be protection of people from aggressive economic, political, and informational environment. The author proposes a conceptual framework and system of indicators for the theory of social work considered as constriction and monitoring of the humanistic social environment.

P. Smirnov. From the Harmony of Activity to the Harmony of Person

Presented is the author's conception of person and society development based on the typology of activities. Three types - orientations of activity are distinguished: ego-activity, alter-activity (service), activity for itself (play). The harmony of person is provided by some balance of activities of these three types. The author describes Russian society as the home-civilization created by the alter-activity, while Western society is considered to be the market-civilization based first of all on the ego-activity. The author claims that the harmony of person, society and nature can be achieved in a spiritual play-civilization that combines all three types of human activities.

S. Golod. Female Sexual Emancipation and the Problem of the Other

The article deals with a problem of women's search for their sexual otherness throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. The author points out incompleteness of the process of women's social (professional, economic, political) and sexual emancipation. This process has not resolved the problem of existential emancipation. Author's arguments based on empirical data (mainly collected by the author himself in 1960 - 90s) and an analysis of fictions.

U. Mueller. Gender and Organization: Traditional Debates and Actual Tendencies

The article examines approaches to analysis of the women's positions in organizations. Considered are models of structural and cultural determination of the gender inequality in modern organization. The author discusses the feministic approach relevance under conditions of new gender politics in organizations.

V. Safronov, O. Burmykina, A. Kornienko, N. Nechaeva. The Russian Culture and Citizens' Attitudes to the Transformation of Society

The article analyses attitudes of Russian people to economic and political reforms. The authors examine models of the attitudes determination by cultural patterns and by rational choice. Presented are empirical data collected by the authors. The findings from three survey studies (St.-Petersburg, 1994-95) demonstrate that majority of the city-dwellers do value the basic principles of Soviet-type society and traditional work ethics. Nevertheless, there is a clear-cut differentiation of value priorities: younger generations, better-educated and not strongly deprived materially strata are much more likely to support liberal institutions. The modernization and intergenerational culture shift theories help to explain the "soviet - liberal" value cleavage. The unexpectedly high share of "traditionalists" in St.-Petersburg can be attributed to the dramatic worsening of the population's standard of living during the 1990s. Cultural differentiation and relative deprivation are among the most powerful variables which determine the people's attitudes to market economy and political system.

Fetisov V. Sociology Searching for its Identity

Sociology as a science and educational discipline cannot develop without permanent attention to its specificity. This specificity is rooted in the sociology's nature as a theory of individual and social groups' activities aimed at their reproduction and development. The conclusion about nature of sociology is based on analysis of two main trends in the modern sociology - realism and nominalism. Being abstract methodological approaches, these trends have been preconditioned by prevailing types of social activities. The author proposes a synthesis of realism and nominalism. Possibility of such synthesis is provided by transformations of modern society in which new trends in activities have created new social environment for sociology.


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