Prof. V. A. Yadov, carrying on a conversation with the JSSA editor V. V. Kozlovsky, tells about his scientific career and discusses developments of Soviet / Russian sociology in 1960-90s.
The author tells about his personal contacts with P. Sorokin and analyses some Sorokin's ideas. The paper presents the image of strong scientist and passionate prophet which revealed and convicted the value crisis of advanced modern society. The author points out especial relevance of Sorokin's integral sociocultural order conception and his analysis of sexual and political morality.
The article is dedicated to role of kin relationship between members of different ethnic groups. In the context of raiding and war, cross-cutting ties have been discussed mostly as factors which exert a counter-effect to these hostilities. The author examines case of cross-cutting ties between clans from two Ethiopian and Kenyan tribes. Example of the inter-clan ties between Rendille and Gabbra confronts the assumption that such ties have de-escalating effects and inhibit violence.
This article is about the problem of role of ethnic identity in the situations of social choice. Author notes that in situation of deep social crisis ethnic identity becomes the universal answer to the question about social action and life sense. Identity is the important means of personal research of the social reality. In accordance with self-defined identifications man organises and directs his behavior. Ethnic identity is the powerful factor of ethnic groups and their connections' formation. The identification with large social (ethnic) group can invest mass behavior and political action (expectually in crisis situation). Ethnic identity is in the same time the means of legitimation and delegitimation of political power in transit societies because it legitimates the national elites action and create necessary conditions for ethno-political mobilisation. Because of that the research of group identification can contribute to prediction of social and political development.
Main problems of ethno-territorial organization of Soviet Union and Russia are analyzed. The author introduces concept "ethnic interests", which are defined as individual's interests determined by his/her ethnicity. Three main groups of such interests are differentiated:
- equality of civil rights,
- reproduction of national culture,
- the "proprietor of territory position".
Current problems of Russia Federation are related to substitution of initial soviet ethno-territorial organization by the Stalin's model in 1930s. The former had realized all groups of ethnic interests, the latter reduced ethno-territorial organization to distribution of "proprietor positions".
The article is dedicated to analysis of the Russian social structure transformation. The authors consider history of the general censuses in Russia and inequality criteria traditionally used for analysis of the Russian social structure. These criteria are compared with recent western approaches to inequality investigation - 'horizontal' stratification through life styles and individual images. Discussed is the problem of application of western standards to Russian system of social inequality.
The 'New Russian' capitalism is analyzed in framework of the two capitalisms conception initially developed by M. Weber. Following Weber, the author distinguishes modern (productive, industrial) capitalism and archaic (parasitic, commercial and adventurist) one. Current Russian society seems to be a representation of the archaic capitalism, which is considered as a sociocultural type.
The article presents some results of the research of relations between social status and the health attitudes and practices. Investigated were subjective importance of health, life styles, personal and family' behavior, and ways of the health problems resolving by St. Petersburg habitants from different social strata. The research was focused on the role of individuals attitude to control and be responsible for their own health.
The article demonstrates on the base of the recent researches the association between social class, life expectancy and morbidity (somatic and psychiatric). These findings are interpreted by discussing the artifact approach, the genetic and social selection theses, the cultural-behavioral and the structural-materialistic variants of explanation. The distinct superiority of the structural-materialistic theses is demonstrated.
The author claims lack of theoretical conceptualization of the association between social class and illness/life expectancy. In order to eliminate these deficits a hierarchical multidimensional model is introduced: the position in the system of social inequality (macro dimension) is connected with the dimension of social action (meso dimension), and with the micro dimension of personality / organism.
This article is dedicated to one of the most famous theorists of the society of the XX century, Niklas Luhmann, who died on November 6th 1998 in Bielefeld, Germany. The article deals, first of all, with his style of scientific work combining the theory design and teaching. Also there are considered Luhmann's key theoretical innovations: description of the society in terms of communications viewed as social system' elementary operations, and introducing the term of "autopoyesis" which points out the ability of (social) system to re-produce itself from its own operations.
The author argues the system theory is open for the further development, especially in domain of the global society analysis.
Prof. R. Stichweh, answering the questions about logical structure and development of N. Luhmann's theory, reveals meaning and role of its key concepts - distinction, self-reference, autopoyesis, communication etc.
Presented are the key topics discussed by the participants of the international symposium which took place 4-7.02.1999 in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Syktyvkar (Komi Republic). Symposium was devoted to P. Sorokin's 110th anniversary, and debates were focused on contemporary interpretations of his conceptual heritage.