Prof. V. Y. Elmeev, answering questions of the JSSA editor V. V. Kozlovski, tells about his scientific career and discusses some aspects of the history of Soviet / Russian sociology and current situation in Society and Social Science.
The article describes Pitirim Sorokin's investigations of sociology's history. The author presents key features of the Sorokin's general conception of sociology's history and he considers Sorokin's approach as a continuation of Russian historical tradition represented by M. Kovalevsky, N. Timashev, V. Hvostov.
This article deals with semantics of social categories or, in other words, with logical structures of concepts corresponding to the names of social groups. These concepts seem to result from cooperation and conflict of two different types of experience - that of using words and that of classifying unnamed objects. The two experiences suggest us two different types of category structure, experience of using words forcing us to reason essentially in terms of Aristotelean logic, while that of dealing with things makes us more favorable towards the intuitions of the so-called logic of prototype. This conflict seems to be especially acute in the categoies belonging to the basic level of social taxonomies whose semantic structures are presumably responsible for the logic of the historical description of the past societies. But it looks likely that this kind of concepts takes its historical origins - or at least becomes as important for social classifications as it is now - only during the period which Reinhart Koselleck calls Sattelzeit (i.e. the second half of the XVIIIth and the first half of the XIXth centuries), and precisely thanks to the mecanisms which enabled the basic historical concepts to liberate themselves from the semantic constraints inbuilt into the traditional social vocabularies.
The article analyses relations between sociological/scientific interpretation of the social practices and political/non-scientific one. Discussing onthological state of concept "social group of entrepreneurs" in Russian economic sociology, the author considers this subject to be an objectification of pre-sociological life orientations of researchers. Uncritically legitimated concepts of economic sociology are real only as political instruments of current social transformation.
The article discusses forms and limits of the public opinion involvement into political decision making. The author introduces a system of criteria which has to differentiate regimes of the public opinion and power institutions interaction. On the base of this criteria system the author develops scale including seven types of regimes from oppression of public opinion by power to "dictatorship" of public opinion.
The article is dedicated to finding possibilities to use concept of symbol for the empirical research. The structure of the symbolized is considered to be divided into two meta-horizons: the transcendental categories and categories given in the intellectual and sensual experience. In respect of all phenomena/noumena man works out symbols of the ideatic level Ц as vague emotion, or symbols of the nominative level arranged linguistically. The latter have a triad structure: cognitive symbol; affective symbol; and active one. The research strategy is reconstruction of symbolic triad formed by community about any phenomenon of the surrounding space. The proposed type of social research has been called The Method of Transsymbolic Analysis.
The author of article proposes to consider problems of school education in a civilization context, paying attention not only to the certain social and economic situation in the country, but also to the processes characterising our modern civilization as a whole. Close connection was discovered between crisis features of our technocratic civilization and urgent problems of school education. The author emphasizes that the unity of crises both of civilization and education have to be shown in a deep feeling of a person who has lost the meaning of life
Now the transformation of education concept into a new humanistic and person-oriented one is the reflection of those civilization shifts which are usually talked about as directed to "antropohenic era" of mankind's cultural development.
The article describes the legislation and institutional structure supporting rights of the disabled and effectiveness of this system in Finland. Presented are some results of the investigation of the disabled quality of life.
One of the most important conditions that help to estimate the perspective of democratic consolidation in Russia is publics' support for democracy and institutionalization of democratic political behavior. Authoritarian tradition and economic ineffectiveness of post-communist governments contribute to the legitimacy crisis of the new regime, provoke mass political protest. Two main directions of protest studies in Russia, i.e. "deprivation" and "political" approaches, give contradictory results. The findings from a survey research in St.Petersburg (Fall 1994, representative sample of adult population, N=581) are discussed. An analysis of factors, which determine a readiness to protest, does not support the assumptions of frustration-aggression theory and relative deprivation theory. The empirical model, which describes the first rank determinants of high propensity to protest and a set of explanatory variables for those factors, is interpreted in terms of political process and culture shift theories. A typology of political participation that takes into consideration conventional action, including electoral behavior and communicative - interpersonal and mass media - political activism, as well as protest potential was constructed. The conclusion of the paper is that during the first half of the 1990s protest politics in St.Petersburg rather helped democratization than threatened the new regime.
The article considers sociology of entrepreneurship as an academic discipline in the system of the economic sociology.
Among subjects of sociology of entrepreneurship there are motivation of entrepreneur's activity, social base and culture of entrepreneurship, position of entrepreneurs in the social structure of modern Russian society, forms of entrepreneurship in informal and criminal economies.
Program of discipline "Sociology of Entrepreneurship" is presented.
Presented is information about summer school "East and Central Europe: Institutionalising Social Change", which took place 29.06-19.07.1998 at the Department of Philosophy of Vilnius University.
Presented are key ideas discussed by the participants of the conference, which took place in May1998 at Tambov State University. Debates were focused on the outstanding social thinker B. Chicherin's intellectual heritage and devoted to his 170th anniversary.
Presented are debates developed by participants of the seminar, which had been organized in St. Petersburg 14-15.09.1998. Research methodology, formation tendencies, and social role of local elites in today's Russia were discussed.
Reviewed is the O. Plenkov's book "Myth of Nation Against Myth of Democracy" dedicated to analysis of the German intellectual tradition, which contributed in rise of nationalistic ideology between two World Wars.