Published is Prof. Zdravomyslov's speech on the seminar at the Faculty of Sociology of St. Petersburg State University. Prof. Zdravomyslov tells about his scientific career initiated in 1950s and reveals some points of the soviet / russian sociology's history.
Three Pitirim Sorokin's small articles first published in 1917 are presented as examples of his involvement in public debates on social and political events. The author points out importance of Sorokin's ideas for contemporary Russia.
The first of three articles discusses transition of Russia after February 1917 from authoritarian state to democratic one. Necessity for democracy of a balance between citizen's rights and duties is stressed.
The second article analyses cultural crisis as one among other social ones. Deficit of knowledge, skills, competence becomes under conditions of total social transformation very dangerous. For the overcoming this crisis the author proposes set of the educational system's reforms.
The third article is about bolshevist ideology. Analysis reveals similarity of the 'proletarian historic mission' slogans and the slavophilian ideas about historic mission of Russian nation.
The essay deals with the Stepun's opinion of the problem of masses. The problem of masses is considered to be a current and modern one. According to Stepun a mass appeared for the first time in the French Revolution. There are two positions or emotions in the mass: peaceful (or latent) and revolutionary. Nevertheless he considers the revolutionary mass as a special position of the peaceful mass. He shows the change of emotions of those in the Mass. The Mass has two extremes: Panic and Heroism. He describes the differences between the mass and the gang or mob, and analyses the structure of the revolutionary mass.
The article discusses the Spengler's interpretation of Russian culture. Spengler considered Russian culture as double-faced one. On the one side Russian culture was involved since Peter the First in Western, European rationalism and capitalism, and on the other side Russian traditionalism and mysticism created intellectual and social opposition to the 'West'. The authors investigate an influence of the Danilevsky's conception of Russian culture on the Spengler's one and difference between those two approaches.
Central Asia, under Soviet power, experienced successive ideological patterns, which were translated into particular clichés, such as modernisation, Sovietisation, Russification and, more recently, Nationalisation, Islamisation and the assertion of independence. The implementation of these ideological patterns and their social impact are crucial for ethnic relations in Central Asia. Among these a dramatic change occurred in the status of some 25 million ethnic Russians in recent years, from a majority group into minorities with disputed identities and uncertain futures. The perception of non-Russians as minorities and their fortunes in the Former Soviet Union have been reversed now: today Russians constitute the Дnew' minorities in the post-Soviet states and experience discrimination.
The article examines the current relations between Russians and Central Asians. Uzbekistan deserves a more detailed study as it is emerging as the Central Asian state which has a clearly defined national agenda. I will further investigate the Russian response to the question of Russian minorities in the border lands: the formation of Dexternal national homeland'.
This article covers the main sociological trends of the social problems investigation. The theoretical approaches to social problems definition are generalized. Two main traditions in sociological treatment of the concept of the social problem are pointed out, the first originating from the idea of social order, and the second based on the idea of social conflict in human society. The critical analysis of these two approaches is presented, and this enables the author to put forward her own concept of social problems definition and the corresponding research methods.
According to the author's investigation the social problems study involves two levels:
On the basis of her preceding achievements the author suggests the method of sociological diagnostics enabling to research and classify social problems.
The article describes the author's approach to the interpretation of development of military sociology. In Russia this branch of sociology has gone through the periods of rapid development and upswing and periods of complete oblivion and hard existence in the rigid ideological limits. The analysis of accumulated theoretical approaches and the research methods allows to conclude about substantial potentialities and prospects of the military sociology.
The extreme unevenness of the socio-economic, political and cultural development of the different regions in the world engendered, in its turn, by the scantiness of the resources of life-support is the main motive for wars in the modern epoch. Phenomenon of war has caused the highly stable stratum of the professional military men to appear. War follows civilization and military social environment is a reality of the modern society, its material and intellectual culture. Professionalism needs high skill and to reach the last one the appointed level of education is necessary. Hence the conclusion can be drawn that education plays the large part in recreating of the military social environment. So, in the author's view, system of the military education needs to be the object of the society's intent consideration.
The purpose of this study is to find patterns of ethnic self-identification among people of minority ancestry (Ukrainian, Belorussian, and Jewish) who have ethnically mixed and non-mixed origin in the context of the Russian city of St. Petersburg which has a social environment significantly different from the places already described by Western sociologists. The study reveals that a protracted stay of ethnic minorities among the Russian population of St. Petersburg and intermarriages with this population lead to assimilation of minority members into the Russian majority. A change of their ethnic self-identification in favor of a Russian ethnic self-identification is a reflection of this assimilation process. The logistic regression analysis used in the study proved strong links between ethnic self-identification of the respondents and their ethnic origin, knowledge of mother-tongue, and cultural self-identification. The study supports Alba's idea about intermarriages as the main factor of assimilation. Generation is an intervening variable between ethnic origin and ethnic, linguistic, and ethnocultural identifications.
The article analyses some results of the national empirical research of sexual behavior. The author reveals differences of the men and women modes of sexual imagination and presentation of their fantasies to researcher.
The main goal of the course is explained: providing a new way into teach tradition on sociology department; also - reasons of its choice: from point of view of social theory development's tendencies in 60-80th years; results of its teaching during Fall 1997 semester are analysed; special features of related bibliography are described.
The course consists of two parts. In the first part - 'Topology of social space' - theoretical sources, basis orientations and terms of Bourdieu's sociology (social space, structures, habitus, practices, capitals, legitimacy, domination) are presented. In the second part - 'Logic of fields' - as lectures as seminars are foreseen. There are devoted to analysis of Bourdieu's theory applying to social space's segments: academic field, literary field, journalism field, political field.
Presented are key ideas discussed by the participants of the Scientific Conference, which took place 25-28.06.1998 at the Faculty of Sociology of St. Petersburg State University. Debates were focused on four main subjects: