THE JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

1998, volume I,
issue 2.


Abstracts

Interview with Prof. Igor Golosenko

Prof. I. A. Golosenko, answering questions of the JSSA editor V. V. Kozlovski, tells about his scientific career and discusses some aspects of the history of Soviet / Russian sociology and its current development.

Pitirim Sorokin's Heritage: P. Sorokin and I. Kon's Correspondence

The letters exchange between P. Sorokin and Prof. Igor Kon in 1965-67 was dedicated to discussion of some problems of the modern sociology development, interpretation of P. Sorokin's key ideas by soviet scientists, and some other topics.

Neda Songuinaite. Social Anthropology of Bronislav Malinowski

Article is dedicated to conception of functionalist anthropology developed by B. Malinowski (1884 - 1942). Some Malinowski's field researches became important for the social anthropology first of all because of a new method centered on (1) analysis of the functional relations between institutions of the given culture and (2) statistical documentation of ethnographic materials. Basic concepts of the Malinowski's anthropology are culture, institution, function, and needs.

Pierre Bourdieu. Structure, Habitus, Practics

The third chapter of P. Bourdieu's Le Sens pratique is presented. It is dedicated to the basic concepts, by which the author confronts dualistic view legitimating only free subject's action or determinism of objectified structures. Relations between concepts "structure", "habitus", "practics" reflect dialectical relations between objective and subjective moments of social reality. Habitus as an interiorized past experience of social structures by an individual produces new ideas, perceptions, and actions as "free" practics.

Natalia Chmatko. "Habitus" in the Structure of the Sociological Theory

The article discusses the theoretical status of the "habitus" concept. The Bourdieu's theory is based on the conception of "double structuration": social reality is structurated by 1) social relations objectified in the distribution of resources (capitals), and 2) human view of these relations. But the subjective structuration is the subjugated moment because it is mediated by habitus as an interiorized set of social relations. Habitus differs from mentality and dispositions. It is a "mechanism" creating agent's practices. It is a reproduction of external social structures in the form of internal personal structures. Interpersonal relations are considered to be a communication of habituses, and social solidarities and differentiations are products of such communications.

Heiko Schrader. Globalisation, (De)civilisation and Morality

The article is concerned with the question what happens to morality/ethics in the course of globalisation as one of the glues that keep society together. A background theory that I apply is Norbert Elias's civilisation theory. In the civilisation process, Elias argues, the shift from pre-modern to modern society was characterized among other things as a shift in internally pacified institutions, laws, constraints and morality/ethic. The nation-state was in Elias's analysis the largest such unit which held the monopoly of force and marked an important boundary between an inner and outer morality. Sociologists, however, have identified a further transgression from modern to post-modern society. The question that concerns me is what happens to the nation-state and its monopoly of force in the course of globalisation. The first part of this article discusses the bundle of globalisation processes. I will argue that the concept of nation-state is competitive to other concepts such as international economic spaces and political arenas. The second part takes up the continuation of Elias' thoughts in the course of globalisation from two perspectives: one perspective is a very pessimistic scenario which assumes that the monopoly of force remains neither with the nation-state nor with higher-level international institutions. A lack of monopoly of force occurs which results in an increase of inner and outer violence. A more optimistic scenario is that morality (as a functional ethic) increases within particular spaces. The argument is that individual and collective actors in a post-modern, globalised society aim at a reduction of the complexity of life and its risks involved by relying on embedded personal relations. Networks are characterised by a high degree of inner morality. Such a perspective pinpoints at a seaming paradox: globalisation and personalisation are closely related to each other.

Paula Rubel, Marina Chegrinets. Research Strategies in the Current American Cultural Anthropology: From the "Description" to the "Writing"

The article aims at analysis of the transformations in epistemological consciousness of current cultural anthropology. The authors try to observe the patterns of the transition from the positivist, objectivist interpretation of an anthropologist's work to more exact and realistic conception. The manifestation of literary dimension in ethnography and of textual nature of an anthropologist's activities as well as the following changes in the interpretation of the problem of representation in ethnographic text are examined as basic points of methodological transformation. These processes are considered to be the main tendencies in theoretical development of current anthropology.

Kuanyshbeck Muzdybaev. Strategies of Coping with Life Difficulties: Integrative Analysis

Different life situations producing specific demands to people that are appraised as taxing or exceeding their resources and capacities are described: life difficulties, negative life events, traumatic events, crisis, disasters and catastrophies. Forms and characteristics of stressors are analyzed. Special section is devoted to discussion of the concept of resources. Different adaptive tasks and strategies of coping with life difficulties are studied.

 

Leonid Keselman, Maria Matskevitch. Intergenerational Shift of Individual Optimism / Pessimism in the Today's Russia

The authors review both the Soviet/Russian and the Western traditions of individual optimism study, in psychology as well as in social psychology and sociology. Basing on empirical data, they consider how such characteristics as age and generation are related to optimism and to an integrated 'index of individual optimism'. The authors also consider optimism' and pessimism's dynamics in Russia since the early 90s to the present. The data collected by the authors themselves are examined in comparision with those collected by other research centers.

Ludmila Yatina. Sociologist's view on Fashion: Results of an Empirical Research

The article is dedicated to analysis of the social essence of the modern fashion, its twenty years-long cycles, and some relations between fashion and social stratification.

Producing and distributing the clothes models as images of preferable life styles and interpersonal relations, fashion industry contributes to reproduction of the social reality.

Fashion cycles are conditioned by the life cycles of generations. Advancing, by thirty-fourty years, desidion makers positions (including designers and magazine editors), people of some generation promote models which express preferences formed during the socialization period. For teenagers these models are "modern" and "original". Their elements will be reactivated in twenty years.

"Modern" and "original" models have own social status. In the consciousness of people preferable models are associated with more prestigeous professional positions. Under the postmodern conditions fashionability can be interpreted as a factor, among others, of the social stratification.

Victor Bocharov. Political Anthropology and Social Practics

Political anthropology is considered as an applied and academic subdiscipline in the system of anthropological knowledge. the main subject of the political anthropology is a political culture, especialy traditional one. Knowledge of this subject can be useful for the government in the poliethnic state. Teaching political anthropology has to be focused on its genesis in the colonization process and possible application in the developed society. Program of discipline "Political Anthropology" is presented.

Michael Sinutin. Seminar 'August Comte and Current Sociology'

Presented are key ideas discussed by the participants of the seminar which took place 16.01.1998 at the Faculty of Sociology of St. Petersburg State University. Debates were focused on the A. Comte's theoretical heritage and devoted to his 200th anniversary.

Igor Golosenko. Military Sociology in Russia

Review discusses S. Brazevitch's book dedicated to development of military sociology from mid 19th century to early 20th one. During this period russian officers and academicians widely used sociological approach to resolve social problems of the army and society's problems associated with the armed forces and wars. Subjects, methods, and some results of the russian sociologists of early 20th century can be instructive for the current reform of the armed forces.


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